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Professor of Hutory and Insirucior in Pedagogies, 
Guilford College, N. C. 


Thomas Bros., Book and Job PrinteeSj 


Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1891, by 


In the Office of the Library at Washington. 


The following pages are a revision and enlargement of the 
small Hand-Book on Pedagogics recently prepared • nd pub- 
lished for the use of the normal classes in Guilford College. 
The dema^id for the Hand-Book and its hearty indorsement 
by many earnest teachers have encouraged the author to pre- 
pare the present work. Although there are a number of ex- 
celle .t books on the subject of Pedagogics, yet it is hoped 
that this small volume will find its destined place of useful- 

The books that have been written on pedagogical subjects 
have been prepared mostly with refence to the demands of 
the graded-rchool w^ork. This work is especially designed for 
the help and encouragement of the large number of teachers 
who are engaged in the various duties of the common dis- 
trict school. The work is an outgrowth of twenty-five years 
of experience in teaching among different grades of pupils 
and under a great variety of circumstances. The subject- 
matter has been mostly prepared by the Author in connec- 
tion with his work in normal classes and teachers' institutes. 
It is an effort to answer, in systematic form, some of the many 
questions that almost daily confront the honest teacher, and 
to set forth the fundamental principles of teaching and school 
government that have been learned by years of sludy and ex- 

The theory of the work is based on the idea that teaching 


is both a science and an art, and that all means and methods, 
to be successful, must be in harmony with certain definite 
laws and principles which have their origin in the nature 
and growth of the mind. 

For many of the thoughts and suggestions contained in the 
book the Author wishes to acknowledge his obligations to 
Pres. Alfred Holbrook of the National Normal and Prof. 
Payne of Michigan University, now of the University of Nash- 
ville, also to the large number who have attended his nor- 
mal classes, ^nd to the many progressive workers with whom 
he has been permitted to mingle in teachers' institutes and 


I. Inteoduction — Teaching : 

Definition of teaching. The prime end of teaching. The teach- 
er's material. The teacher's work — teaching a science and an 
art. Methods of teaching, &c Page 9. 

II. Mental Development : 

Definition of. The end of. Nature of mind. Nature and order 
of the mind's development. Means or branches of study best 
adapted to the growth and training of the mind — Methods, &c, 14 
Powers of Observations : Definition. Importance of. How 
cultivated. Principles stated 21 

III. Moral Culture : 

Definition. The object or end of. The means and methods. 
Principles stated... 22 

IV. Physical Culture: 

Definition. Importance of. The end of. Means and methods. 
Principles stated, &c 29 

V. Correct Habits: 

Habit defined. Habits classified. How formed. Habits of 
obedience. Habits of accurate observations. Habits of indus- 
try. Habits of self-help. Habits of bodily movements. Prin- 
ciples stated, &c --SS 

VI. The Culture of the Memory : 

Definition. How improved. Habits of careful observation a 
basis. Systematic study. Attention. A tendency to trust the 
memory, &c 42 

VII. Preliminary Work: 

Importance of. Before opening a term of school. Preparation 
of each day's work in term-time. Attention to school room. 
Eemarks on, &c 47 

VIII. The Programme: 

Object and importance. Nature of. How determined. Prin- 
ciples to be regarded. Sample programme, &c 53 


iX. Thb Recitation : 

Object. Chief work of. Suggestions. Remarks, &c 58 

X. The Work op Pupils Out of Class: 

The object or end. The work to be done. Assignment of work. 
Examination of work. Principles stated, &c , 64 

XI. School Government: 

Introductory, Based on general principles. Both a science 
and an art 70 

XII. School Govermment: 

A means to an end. The end. Kinds. Governing forces. 

Their relations, &c 72 

School Government: — Collateral aids to government. Rules. 

Offences. Penalties 77 

Statement of principles 82 

XIII. School Management: 

Musts and Don'ts of 84 

XIV. Teaching Reading : 

Importance of. The end to be attained. Special end of, in re- 
citation. Qualities of good reading. Work in recitation. Re- 
marks. Table of Elementary sounds 94 

XV. Language Studies : 

Language defined. Object of language study. Methods of 
language study. Means work, &c 100 

XVI. History. 

The value of historical study. Relations of History and Geop- 
raphy , ..109 

XVII. The Parts of History to be Taught. 

First lessons. Outlines of United States History with Physical 
Geography. General History. U. S. History, &c 114 

XVIII. Teaching History: 

The method topical. The order should be systematic. In- 
struction thorough and life-like. Historical classifications and 
essays. Assignment of lesson. Topical lessons. Historical 
chart..... 117 

XIX. Geography: 

As an interesting study for children. Its value as a study 
Method of teaching Geography. Remarks and principles. ..132 

XX. The Natural Sciences : 

Definition. As a means of culture. The end of scientific study. 
The method for teaching. Statement of principles 137 


Give us light amid our darkness ; 

Let us know the good from ill ; 
Hate us not for all our blindness ; 
Love us, lead us, show us kindness— 

You can make us what you will. 

We are willing— w^e are ready ; 

We would learn if you would teach ; 
We have hearts that yearn towards duty. 
We have minds alive to beauty, 

Souls that any heights can reach ! 

We shall be what you will make us — 
Make us wise and make us good ! 

Make us strong for time of trial ; 

Teach us temperance, self-denial, 
Patience, kindness, fortitude. 

— Mary Howitt. 

The individual who cannot corQe up to the appreciation of 
the above lines will succeed better in some other occupation 
than that of teacher. The true teacher must possess strong 
faith in the infinite possibilities that lie hid in the child. 

The teacher must not only know thoroughly and fundamentally 
ivhat he teaches, but must study well the laws which govern the exer- 
cises and develope the faculties of those whom he teaches ; he must 
know both the lesson and the scholar, and the means by which the 
two may be brought into fruitful contact-^-Karl RosenkranZ' 



A definite and predetermined end is essential to suc- 
cessful work in the department of teaching. He who would 
construct a bridge or build a factory, must first have in his 
mind a clearly defined conception of the Ijridge to be con- 
structed or the factory to be erected. He must also have a knowl- 
edge of the properties of the different materials to. be used. 
So the teacher who would do a conscientious and successful 
work in the building of character, must first have a clear 
conception of the end to be accomplished. He must also have 
a knowledge of the materials out of which he is to build. 

He must have asked and answered for himself the ques- 
tions :— What is the nature of the material upon which the 
teacher is to Avork? What is the prime end in teaching? 
What is the thing to be done ? 

First. What is the nature of the material ? In each 
pupil there is a combination of matter and force. There are 
the bodily substances, the vital forces, mental faculties and 
moral tendencies held together in their wonderful conabination, 
and with such an inter-clependence that the complete develop- 
ment of either one can only be had through the harmonious 
develo23ment of the whole. 

These elements, as found in each individual, may be regarded 
as certain powers and divided into three general classes : — the 
mental, the moral and the physical. 

These powers or energies constitute the material upon which 
the teacher works — a material unlike the timber of the carpen- 
ter, the potter's clay, or the marble under the chisel of the 


sculptor. These are so many dead bodies, to be shaped by 
influences outside of, and distinct from themselves. 

Not so with the material in the hands of the teacher. It is 
his part to deal with powers — living and self-acting powers — 
the development and tendencies of which are determined by 
forces acting from within as well as by influences from with- 
out. The potter gives shape to the clay by the outward force 
which he brings to bear upon it ; the teacher gives form and 
strength to the intellect by calling out and directing its inner 
energies. The material of the one, is dead matter to be shaped, 
that of the other, is lining energies to be called out and di- 

With this idea of the material, we come to the second ques- 
tion: — What is the prime end of teaching? What is the 
teacher's part in connection with this m iterial, in order that 
the best results may be attained in preparing pupils for the la- 
bors and responsibilities of life ? 

The end of the teacher's work may be summed up 
as follows : First, the development of powers ; second, the for- 
mation of correct habits, and third, the impartation of knowl- 
edge. It is principally through these three channels that the 
prime end of teaching is to be reached — which end is the de- 
velopment of strong character. 

The development and training of powers and the 
formation of habits may be esteemed of more impor- 
tance than the acquisition of knowledge, yet each should be 
made auxiliary to the other two. A normal development of 
powers, through the impartation of useful knowledge, is ideal 
success in teaching. 

The tripod is selected by civil engineers as the instrument 
best adapted for standing steadily on even or uneven surfaces ; 
so the individual character, if it be able to stand upon the 
rough highways of life, must rest upon the mental faculties, 
moral forces and physical energies, matured in a harmonious 
development. To neglect either one is to bring weakness to 
the whole. 


In brief outline we have endeavored to notice some of the 
prominent points relatino; to the end of teaching. 

We have also noticed the distinctive features that mark the 
nature of the material upon which the teacher is to work. 

The following chapters and classifications will deal, in most 
part, with the plans and methods by which the end may be 
best reached : — What is the food upon which the mind should 
be fed ; at what time and in what quantities this food should 
be given ; and what the methods of instruction and discipline 
to be employed, in order that the best results may be obtained. 

Different courses of study, and different methods of instruc- 
tion and government have been proposed and carried out with 
seemingly good results. The teacher must be natural in his 
methods of work. As a rule, great teachers have been great 
in their own methods. 

But teaching is a science as well as an art. There 
are certain principles that underlie all successful work in the 
department of education. These principles have their origin 
in the make-up and natural tendencies of the pupil. 

All questions, relating either to courses of study, meth- 
ods of instruction or disci|)line, should be considered and de- 
termined Avith reference to the natural growth and balanced 
culture of all the faculties and powers. 



Teaching. — Topical Analysis. 

ri. D€ 

I2. A 

f ("1. Definite and predetermined end essential. 

1. Introductory. 

linowledge of the materials essential. 


3. The Prime f 1. The formation of character in the individual. 
End. 12. The improvement of society in the state. 

f fl. Powers of observation. 

1 1. Mental J 2. Retentive powers. 
3. The Teacher's) Powers. | 3. Reasoning. 


[4. Judgment. 

2. Moral powers. 

3. Physical powers. 

4 rpi rp 1 , f 1. The development and training of powers. 

4. ilie ieachers l ^ t^^ formation of correct habits. 

(3. The impartation of knowledge. 

5. A Science and an Art. 

{1. Must be scientific. 
2. Must be based on the nature of mind and 
the order of its development. 


■ Principles Stated. 

1. '' The end and aim of education is the emancipation of 
the youth. It strives to make him self-dependent, and as 
soon as he has become so, it wishes to retire and to be able to 
leave him to the sole responsibilty of his actions. 

2. " The absolute limit of education is the time when the 
youth has apprehended the problem which he has to solve ; 
has learned to know the means at his disposal and has acquired 
a certain faculty in using them. 

3. " The teacher must not only know thoroughly and funda- 
mentally what he teaches, but must study well the laws which, 
govern the exercises, and clevelope the faculties of those whom 
he teaches ; he must know both the lesson and the scholar 
and the means by which the two may be brought into fruitful 
contact. " — Karl Rosenkranz. 

4. " No system or method can be efficient without the in- 
telligence and industry of the teacher, and without he is re- 
ligiously imbued with a high sense of the dignity and 
importance of his work." — Tate. 

5. " The successful teacher must in his own person form a 
connecting link between the art and the science of education." 
— Craig. 

6. " Education must recognize and fully comprehend the 
individuality of the pupil, neither allowing the arbitrary ex- 
ercise of his will or that of the teacher." — Helnroth. 

7. A normal development of powers through the impartation 
of useful knowledge is ideal success in teaching. 

8. They who love learning will have learning. 

9. " The primary principle of education is the determination 
of the pupil to self-activity — the doing of nothing for him 
which he is able to do for himself." — Sir William Hamilton. 


Mental Development. 

In its general acceptation, development implies a gradual 
growth through a series of successive changes. 

It is in this sense that the term is applied to the unfolding 
and strengthening of the faculties and capacities of the mind. 

Then, what is the prime end in the cultivation of the mind ? 
What shall be our conception of a rightly developed mind ? 

What shall we expect it to be able to do ? 

Under proper influences of culture, each mind will be nat- 
ural and retain its distinctive individuality ; yet in all minds 
there are certain powers that may be developed through a 
systematic training, and to rightly develop these powers should 
be the chief end of mental discipline. 

1. There is the ability of the mind to take in pictures 
or images of external objects through the five bodily 

First in importance, and in the order of development, 
are the faculties of observation. It is through these faculties, 
and these alone, that the soul comes in contact with the ma- 
terial world. 

By means of the five bodily senses — the sight, the hearing, 
the smell, the touch and the taste — together with the faculties 
that use them, the mind takes in its first pictures or ideas of 
material objects. 

Ideas thus received into the mind form the primary basis of 
all knowledge. 

If the powers of observation are not properly developed, 
which is too often the case, the primary knowledge will be de- 
fective, both as to quality and quantity. Fewer objects will be 
recognized by the mind, while the ideas of these objects wil 
be lacking, both in points of clearness and distinctness. 


With the primary knowledge thus defective, all secondary 
knowledge must be indefinite, and, in a measure, inaccurate. 

The retentive and reasoning faculties must build out of the 
material furnished by the powers of observation. 

The reliableness of the retentive faculties depends upon 
the perception. 

The mind retains longest those things of which it has a 
definite comprehension. Things are readily forgotten, because 
they are not accurately known. Not only so, but clearness 
and distinctness in primary knowledge, give courage in pro- 
cesses of reasoning and confidence in derived judgments. 
Hence, it may be readily seen, that to neglect the culture of 
the faculties of observation, is to make thorough scholarship 
impossible, whatever the attention that may afterward be given 
to the other faculties of the mind. 

2. The ability to retain and reproduce these images 
at will. To be able to retain, without the ability to bring 
up or reproduce, shows a lack of system in the operations 
of the mind. It is like a merchant when his house is full 
of goods and he cannot readily find the article wanted. 

3. The ability to elaborate, or take the material al- 
ready in the mind and, by a process, of comparison, selec- 
tion, re-arrangement or re-combination, produce that which is 
new and different. This power of elaboration, or the ability 
to take the material already in the mind, and out of it produce 
new and additional material is, in common, .called the power 
of thought. It is the power that invents, plans, and originates. 
It collects together the facts of discovery, and establishes the 
principles of science. It gives improvements to the arts and 
progress to civilization. 

4. The ability to express thought in a way that it 
may be intelligibly received by others. It is not enough that 
the mind be able to take in and retain primary knowledge, 
and, through elaboration, produce additional or secondary 
knowledge, but it should be able to convey its knowledge to 
other minds. An individual who has a store of knowledge 


and cannot express it to others, has been very aptly compared 
to a man with a box full of tools, but wanting the ability to 
use them. 

The above four powers are characteristic of a strong and 
balanced mind, and the culture of these powers comprehends, 
in most part, the prime end of mental training. 

Different minds possess these powers in different degrees of 
strength. In some the faculties of observation appear most 
prominent, while in others we see more the ability to repro- 
duce or elaborate, and still others excel in the use of language 
or the ability to express thought readily and clearly. But be 
the natural tendencies of the mind as they may, its powers to 
do, are very largely the result of the training which the mind 
has had. 

Then what system of training will be most efficient in 
the harmonious development of the mental powers ? 
What is the nature of mind ? 

What is the natural order in which the feculties of the mind 
develop ? 

What are the branches of study best adapted to the growth 
and training of these diff'erent faculties ? 

And what is the method of instruction to be employed in 
awakening in them a healthy energy at their various stages of 
growth ? 

The nature of mind. The mind is spiritual and self- 
acting. It is composed of distinct faculties which it uses for 
the accomplishment of distinct and definite ends. Through 
the doors of the senses it may be reached, imj^ressed and 
called into action by the use of material objects. 

The mental faculties mutually influence one another in the 
several processes of observation, retention, reasoning and judg- 

Thus grouped, with reference to their relation in the differ- 
ent processes of mental action, the natural order of the 
mind's development may be stated as follows: 1. Ob- 
servation. 2. Retention. 3. Reasoning. 4. Judgment. 


The laculties of retention and observation seem to be closely 
related in their processes and also in their time of develop- 
ment. The same may be said in reference to the faculties of 
reason and judgment ; but the process whidi is first, both in 
time and importance, is observation. 

The mind must first take in before it can retain, and the 
ability to retain depends upon the accuracy of the perception. 

Nothing that can be said, however, on this subject is so in- 
structive to those who will study it, as the child itself. 

Study its inquisitive nature as it begins to observe objects in 
the nursery, to reach after things near and far. See it turn its 
rattle over and over, throw it down and pick it up again with 
new interest ; observe as it listens at sounds, and tastes every- 
thing it can put its hands on. See it again, the little boy or 
girl of three or four summers, with a restless inc|uisitiveness 
that wants to look into every drawer and nook and corner in 
the house ; to see everything that passes along the road or street; 
asking more questions than even the good mother has the pa- 
tience to answer. Then comes the inclination to memorize 
and speak little verses, to hear and repeat stories, to remember 
names, places, &c. Following this natural transition, at length 
we have the boy and girl in their teens ; reflecting and reason- 
ing, and looking with some degree of distrust upon the coun- 
sel of their parents and friends, but hardly willing to rely upon 
their own conclusions. And still farther on in life the matur- 
ing judgment gives us the more stable character of manhood 
and womanhood. 

It is important to recognize this natural order of growth in 
determining both the means and the methods of teaching, in- 
asmuch as there is a particular kind of food and discipline 
suited to the exercise of each faculty, and upon the judicious 
use of these depends, in a large measure, success in education. 
The powers may be cultivated with the best effect at the pe- 
riod of their natural activity. 

The teacher, then, who is acquainted with the natural growth 
of the mind, as every teacher should be, knows l^etter how to 


follow up mother Nature in her methods of education, by 
bringing to the attention of the pupils subjects suited to their 
several needs. 

The means or branches of study to be employed in 
the development and training of the mind must be determined 
by the nature of the mind itself and by its advancement in the 
order of growth. To require a pupil to study a subject that 
demands the special use of the reasoning faculties at the age 
when the faculties of observation or retention are rapidly de- 
veloping and chiefly active, is to work against the plans of 
mother Nature, and is apt to result in discouragement and 
failure. So it is if an attempt be made to cultivate the pow- 
ers of observation by requiring pupils to study branches which 
by their nature call mainly into use the memory or the powers 
of reasoning. 

It is important that the subjects taught be such as will 
awaken an interest in study. I\Iental activity sustained by in- 
terested work, is more fruitful in desirable results than that 
which is awakened and kept up by the efforts of the will. The 
effect of the one is to refresh and energize, while the effect of 
the other is to weary and enervate. It is also important that 23U- 
pils study subjects that will foster purity of thought. The 
mind that dwells on things impure is like the body that feeds, 
on the stale refuse of the city market. It will have its rickety 
deformities and its unhealthy tendencies. Vileness is ojDposed 
to all true inspirations. 

The method to be employed must be normal. It must 
be based on the nature of the mind itself. It must regard the 
natural order of the mind's development and observe the 
principles that govern its activities and determine its growth. 
It must induce self-activity in the minds of the pupils. It 
must incite mental effort and train the mental powers. It 
should seek to have thought in concord with emotion and 
awaken a healthy interest in study, the stimulus to mental ef- 
fort. It must inculcate methodical habits of study. 






Topical Analysis. 

f rThe unfolding, strengthening and training of 

j 1. Definition, j the faculties, capacities and tendencies of the 
( mind. 

f 1. Ability to take in pictures or images of exter- 
I nal objects. 

2 TheF 1 ' "• Ability ^^ retain these images in the mind and 
'^^^ ' ] call them up at will. 

I 3. Ability to elaborate. 
[ 4. Ability to express thought readily and correctly. 

f 1. The mind is spiritual. 
S The Nature of I ^- ^^^ ™"'^ ^^ self-acting. 

thf Annrl -i 3- The mind is composed of distinct faculties, 
me iviinu. ^ ^ Through the doors of the senses the mind 

[ may be reached and influenced. 

fl. Power of observation. 
4. The Natural Order of the Mind's J 2. Retentive powers. 
Development. | 3. Reasoning^ powers. 

[4. Judgment. 

f 1. They must be suited to the stages of 

5 Means or Branch- I the mind's growth, 

il ^? C!?L £o.f 2. They must be adapted to the special de- 

4 rl w.^ ?n ihl J velopment of the difl-erent faculties. 

A S n^.-SVoi!. I 3. They should be such as will incite 

,v.!?rf !l!: iv^^i^ wholesome mental activity by awa- 

mgoftheMmd. | kening an interest in study. 

[4. They must foster purity of thought. 

fl. It must regard the natural order of the 
mind's development. 
. It must induce self-activity in the mind of 
the pupil. 

I 3. It must incite mental effort and train the 
The Method. -{ mental powers. 

I 4. It should seek to have thought in concord 
with emotion, and make a healthy inter- 
est in study, the stimulus to mental effort. 

I 5.' It must inculcate methodical habits of 

L study. 




1. Unnatural discipline tends to distorted culture : all 
means and methods must be made conformable to nature's 

2. The power of thought is obtained by systematic think- 
m<y ; mental growth depends upon mental action. 

3. A protracted exercise of the faculties tends to exhaus- 
tion and weakness, while a change of occupation renews the 
energy of their own action. 

4. "No exercise should be so difficult as to discourage ex- 
ertion, or so easy as to render it unnecessary." 

5. The teacher is not one who tells, but one who sets the 
learner's mind to work, directs and regulates its rate of ad- 
vance. — Joseph Payne. 

6. Development must be harmonious. 

7. "The greatest events of an age are its best thoughts. It 
is the nature of thought to find its way into action." 

8. "Thought means life, since those who do not think do 
not live in any high or real sense." 

9. "Man isathinking being, whether he will or no. All 
he can do is to turn his thoughts the best way." 

10. "It is only by labor that thought can be made healthy, 
and only by thought that labor can be made happy ; and the 
two cannot be separated with impunity." 

11. Primary knowledge is acquired in two ways — by look- 
ing out through the senses or by looking in by the mind's in- 

12. With the primary knowledge defective, all secondary 
knowledge is to that extent unreliable. 

13. The foundation of unreliable scholarship is generally 
laid in habits of careless observation. 



Topical Analysis. 

( i The five bodilj^ senses and the faculties of the 

I 1. Definition. < mind that use them constitute the 
( of observation. 





2. Their Place in the Natural Order of the Mind's Develop- 


fl. In the acquisition of knowledge. 
! 2. As an aid to memory, 

3. Their Importance. ^ 3. As a remedy against timidity. 

I 4. As related to the expression of thought. 
[ 5. As essential to accurate scholarship. 

f 1. By repeated and accurate observation. 

I 2. By the reproduction of images taken into the 

4. HowCul-j mind by observation— the description of 
tivated. ' things seen. 

! 3. By the natural method of instruction. 
[ 4. By studies in the natural sciences. 

f 1. "Before a child is capable of talking, its edu- 
cation should be commenced." 
, The five senses— the inlets of its earliest 
knowledge should receive the most careful 
attention, that habits of accurate observation 
may be early formed. 
The reliableness of the memory and the ac- 
curacy of the judgment are dependent upon 

'', the culture of the powers of observation. 

I 5. In childhood the eyes are sharp to see, the ears 
quick to hear, and the fingers ever busy and 

I ready to do. This activity is to be directed ; 

these senses are to be exercised, and_ the 

I mind must have facts to satisfy its cravings. 

I 6. The olDJect lesson imparts facts through the 

[ exercise of the senses. 

5. Principles 




Moral Culture. 

Moral law is the basis of civilization and all successful hu- 
man endeavor. 

" To the thinking observer," says Harris, " nothing can be 
more obvious than the fact that the whole fabric of society 
rests on the proper moral training of the youth." 

Says another writer : " There is a great law pervading the 
universe, which to know is wisdom, to love is piety, and to 
obey is holiness. It is the perpetual revelation of the Divine 
will, the ceaseless manifestations of the Deity to man. By it 
the heavens revolve, declaring as they pass, the glory oi God. 

By it all nature lives and moves in delightful harmony. It 
bids the busy ant provide her meat in the summer, and the 
bird of passage to fly from the winter storm." 
" That mankind may come into harmony with this law in its 
applications to the individual, to society, and to the state, 
comprehends in most part, the end of moral culture in the 

There are certain faculties or powers in each individual 
which tend to bring him into harmony with the Divine will, 
and hence upon their development depends his moral 
strength. As a basis for reliable character nine things are es- 
sentially important. 

1. A clear and discriminating moral sense — an abihty 
and tendency to draw the hue between right and wrong with 
clearness and dispatch. Upon this power rests very largely 
the decision of character. With a highly cultivated sense of 
the right, there is not so much of a tendency to parley with 
the wrong, to yield to evil associations. 

2. A love for the truth and the right, a desire to 
do what is right for right's sake. 


3. A confidence in th6 tendencies and power of 
truth. It is natural for the youth to admire that which 
possesses the elements of strength and success. A conscious- 
ness of the power and final outcome of right principles creates 
a desire to seek results throuo;h obedience to the laws of truth. 

4. A confidence in humanity and a tendency to look 
for good, instead of evil — "to recognize the good in all, 
and to receive good from all." The mind that feeds on the 
failings of others, gets little to nourish the hopes and pur- 
poses of a noble life. 

5. A confidence in God as the author of all truth and 
of all law, and in Jesus Christ, the great Teacher and Redeem- 
er, the source of energy and the revealer of truth. 

6. Pure motives and high purposes in the minds of 
the youth that they may be continually led into the pursuit 
of noble ends. 

" The soul that has no singleness of- aim is distracted and 
divided, and loses its power." — Clark. Says Horace Mann : 
" When a teacher stimulates a child to the performance of ac- 
tions, externally right, by appealing to motives intrinsically 
wrong, he sells that child into bondage to wrong motives. 

7. Habits of moral obedience. As in the physical 
so in the moral actions the power of habit has a great in- 
fluence either for good or evil. Moral conduct stands on the 
obedience to law. The boy whose custom it is to obey is al- 
ways a more reliable one when put under temptation to go 

8. An active conscience. — a feeling of oughtness that 
speaks out at every point of moral decision and follows up 
every wrong act with keen remorse. 

9. Habits of industry coupled with a belief in the 

dignity of labor. In the moral world there is still no safe 
place for the idler; and labor continues to be drudgery to the 
one who regards it as the dependent necessity. 

Such then, may be regarded as the principle elements that 
constitute the end of moral training. The means by which 


this end may be reached are various, depending upon the cir- 
cumstances and the dispositions of the pupils. 

" To teach morals," says Chas. Brooks, "is first to impart 
moral ideas into children's minds by words, and then, by ex- 
ercise and example to make those moral ideas become active 
principles embodied in the life." 

The principal means to be employed in moral culture 
are in the main as follows : 

I. The general bearing of the teacher. Children 
are among our best observers. They are not long in discov- 
ering the motives and principles behind the teacher's actions. 
His habits, his temper, his impartiality, and his justice, to- 
gether with the interest which he feels in the work of the 
school, are readily seen by the pupils, and have a great influ- 
ence in determining their dispositions and motives. It has 
been aptly said by Nimeyer : " What children see constantly 
done by those whom they respect and love, they soon come to 
think is what ought to be done." " The first work of a teach- 
er," says Reynolds, " is to honor by his own example the pre- 
cepts which he recommends." 

He should be true to his pupils, true to himself, and true 
to the profession which he has chosen. 

" O'er wayward children wouldst thou hold firm rule, 
And sun thee in the ligh?of happy faces? 
Love, hope and patience — these must be thy graces, 

And in thine ovm heart let them first keep school." 

II. Moral instruction. This may be either direct or 

There are many cases in which it is necessary to teach chil- 
dren directly what is right and what is wrong ; but the most 
lasting impressions, those which become blended into the in- 
dividual character, are mostly obtained by indirect instruc- 
tion — Instruction in which the moral food is mixed with the 

The means to be employed in this instrQction are mainly 
as follows : 


a. Discussions on moral questions by the teacher 
and the pupils. These subjects may be selected by the 
teacher, and introduced at such times as may seem best. 
There should be great freedom in the discufisions. The time, 
nature of the subject, and method of discussion must be left 
to the common sense and good judgment of the teacher. 
Such discussions will give more satisfactory results, as pupils 
are of a higher grade. 

b. Declamations and composition writing. Noble 
thoughts committed and recited in well selected declama- 
tions, or gathered up and embodied in essays, furnish a 
wholesome food for the moral faculties. In these exercises 
the pupils not only directly strengthen themselves, but they 
help and encourage one another. A moral principle, search- 
ed out and expressed by a pupil, is often more readily 
received than if it had been presented directly by the teacher. 
It is difficult to measure the moral influence that a well ar- 
ranged school exhibition may have on a community. The 
ennobling thoughts rehearsed by the children take root not 
only in their own minds, but also in the minds of the parents. 

c. Text books and literature. P]very book, maga- 
zine or newspaper read, has its intiuence either for or against 
moral culture. " Books, like teachers, must have morality 
in them or else they c.innot im])arG it." Especially is this true 
in regard to school readers. 

d. Stories and anecdotes selected from history and 
biography. "To hear al)out goo.l men," says Richter is 
equivalent to living among them." The boy who reads Dr. 
Livingstone's travels in Africa, the boyhood days of Frank- 
lin, or the life of William Wilberforce in his efforts for hu- 
man freedom, will iinlnbe principles and motives of action 
that will ever tend to inspire and direct him in a more noble 

The girl who follows Elizabeth Fry through her prison 
work in England, or Mary Lyon, struggling against great dif- 
ficulties to obtain an education, and afterwards in her success- 


ful labors at Mount Holyoke Seminary, will have a nobler 
heart and a better appreciation of the opportunities and re- 
sponsibilities of her sex. 

Moral lessons are the more lasting, as they are blended with 
the common stock of knowledge which the pupil acquires. 

Pupils much prefer being instructed in knowledge to being 
lectured to on morality. 

3. The exercise of the moral faculties. The secret 
of successful teaching is to excite and keep alive a spirit 
of wholesome activity among the pupils. As with the men- 
tal and 23hysical powers, so it is with the moral facidties. 
They strengthen by exercise, but weaken ]\y inaction. The 
tendency and power to do 'right comes by doing right. The 
inclination to think nobly is obtained by dealing with noble 
thoughts. Dunning has well said : " Character is formed by 
training rather than by teaching. A teacher cannot lecture a 
child into good manners, nor change habits of any kind l)y 
the longest speech. Habits are changed only by repetition 
of doing, and it is in these doings that training consists." 



Topical Analysis. 

1. Def. of the moral 


1. In 


al. \ Har 

mony with the Divine will. 

2. The 
end of 



A clear and discriminative moral sense 

A love for the truth and the right. 

A confidence in the tendencies and 

power of truth. 
A confidence inhumanity. 
A confidence in God as "the author of 

Habits of moral obdience. 
An active conscience. 
Pure motives and noble aims. 
Habits of industry coupled with a belief 

in the dignity of labor. 
f 1. The general bearing of the teacher. 

I 2. As to 
[ particulars ] 

2. The means 



1. Direct. < Precepts. 

5 ^1 

Discussions on moral questions. 

Declamations and composition wri- 

Text-books and literature. 
I d. Stories and anecdotes from history 
L and biography. 


I b. 


s I, 

III. Exercises of the mor- j ,' 
al faculties. 1 

IV. Environments 
and associations. 

In doing right. 

In feeling right. 

In thinking nobly. 
f 1. Neatness and arrange- 
I ment of school rooms, 
i school ground, games, &c. 
I 2. Proper associates. 
I 3. Societies and associations 
I for the promotion of mor- 
I al and religious ends. 

V. The principles of 
Christianity studied 
and lived to. 




1. What children see constantly done b}^ those whom they 
respect and love they soon come to think ought to be done." 
— Nimeyer. 

2. ''Nothing can influence character like character." 

3. " Character is formed l)}^ training rather than by teach- 
ing." — Dunning. 

4. A tendency to do right is acquired by right doing. A 
pure and noble mind results from thinking pure and noble 

5. '• Believing that a boy has some good in him and let- 
ting him know that you believe it is, one of the liest means 
of putting it there." — N. A. Calkins. 

(). " To hear about good men is equivalent to living among 

7. Moral lessons are the more lasting as they are blended 
with the common stock of knowledge which the pupil ac- 
quires. Pupils much prefer being instructed in knowledge to 
being lectured to on morality. 

• 8. " Motives are better than actions. He that does good 
for good's sake, seeks neither 2:>riiise nor reward, though sure 
of both at last." 

9. "The great ends of life are gained by him who, in all 
his conduct, is animated by the love of Christ." 

10. " The soul that has no singleness of aim is distracted 
and divided, and loses its power." 

IL " To be trusted is to be saved." 

12. " If we try to influence or elevate others we shall soon. 
see that success is in proportion to their belief of our belief in 




Education in its chief end comprehends a complete culture 
of the entire person. 

The natural inter-dependence existing between the body 
and the mind is such, that to secure a complete development 
of either there must be a harmonious development of both. 
Physical culture, therefore, is a part of the teacher's work. 
In addition to the education of the moral and mental facul- 
ties, there must be that physical training necessary to secure 
the growth, health and right tendencies of the body. For 
evidences of the needs for phj^sical training, we have Init to 
refer to.tlie large numl)er of students continually coming out 
of our schools, ill of health, deformed in stature, ungraceful 
in their movements, eml)arassed with injurious and uncouth 
habits, and without sufficient energy to follow^ up the desires 
and purposes of an active mind. 

Teachers often meet with discouragement in the influences 
that surround the pupils in their home association. Perhaps 
there is no part of the teacher's work in which the discourage- 
ments are more conmion than in their efforts toward physical 
culture. Yet there is much that the conscientious teacher 
can do for the health and general bearing of the student. 

In order that the efforts put forth may be proper and rightly 
directed, it is necessary in this, as in mental and moral cul- 
ture, that there be a purpose and plan definitely defined in 
the teacher's mind. There should also be a knowledge of the 
organism of the human body, with the laws that govern its 
growth and activity. Presuming, then, an ac(iuaintance with 
the anatomy and hygiene of the body, it remains for us to in- 
quire into the best means and methods for its training. 


The end of physical culture may be noticed under the fol- 
lowing four subdivisions. 

1. Bodily strength and symmetry. These are but the 
outgrowth of natural develo})ment. Any weakness or de- 
formity, however slight, has its origin in the violation of one 
or more of the natural laws of growth. Tiie body becomes 
stouter and more capable of resisting disease as all the differ- 
ent parts are proportionally developed. 

And there is an influence in the dignity of bearing which is 
too lightly esteemed by many educators. The student who 
comes out of school with hollow cheeks, humped shoulders, 
or boorish habits, commences the race of life at a disadvan- 
tage. If he be not more subject to disease, his general ap- 
pearance is taken as an index of liis lack of energy and 
self-respect, "and is an inhuence against him. Some very 
strong and good men have liad their bodily iniirmaties, yet 
these defects cannot be taken as marks of greatness. Even 
nose-glasses, as worn l;)y our young collegiates, cannot be es- 
teemed more than prima facue evidence of scholarship. 

2. The discipline of the physical powers. Develop- 
ment and discipline are very closely related, yet one is not 
necessarily the result of the other. Discipline fosters devel- 
opment, but development does not, of itself, secure discipline. 
Development signifies a growth of the different parts of the 
body ; discipline denotes a control of these parts by the will. 
That the body may serve the soul that lives in it, it must be 
disciplined into obedience to the will that dictates its move- 

The limbs must be trained to move, the senses to perceive, 
and the voice to modulate. 

3. Naturalness in the bodily appetites. The appe- 
tites are either natural or abnormal. They originate either in 
the bodily needs or they are created by outward influences. 
The gratification of the natural appetites supplies the needs of 
the body and maintains a healthy growth of its organism. 
The abnormal or unnatural ap})etites may be a craving for what 


is poisonous to the vital energies, as tobacco, alcoholic drinks or 
morphine ; or it may be simply a cbsire to partake of what the 
system does not need (as in a case of over-eating). In either 
case the gratification of the desire is pernicious in its effects. 

4. A wholesome energy. Man is not by nature a lazy 
animal. The healthy child is full of life and mdustry. If 
the grown up man or woman be sluggish and indolent it is 
not the fault of nature, but ratlier the result of disease and 
wrong tendencies acquired through l)ad training, or it may be 
no training. Then, to foster the life, and direct the spirit of 
industry found in childhood, should be one of the chief aims 
of education. 

The means and methods by which the above named ends 
may be best attained are somewhat difficult to classify and 
define. The means to be used, and the methods to be em- 
ployed are so blended together that the end seems to be ac- 
complished more by the method becoming the means, than 
through means in the hands of methods. 

(a). The nature and arrangement of the school rooms 
and school furniture have an influence in the physical as 
well as the moral and intellectual training of children. The 
shajje and size of the room, the location and arrangement 
of windows for the admission of light, the means of heating 
and -N'entilation, the kind, height and arrangement of desks 
and recitation seats, the j^osition of teacher's desk and black- 
boards, etc., with the cleanliness and attractiveness of the 
entire room, have a bearing upon the symmetry, health, in- 
dustry and cheerfulness of the school that must not be over- 

Bring an uncouth, aimless boy for the first time into a com- 
fortable, well-ventilated and well-lighted school room. As 
he seats himself and looks around upon the tidy desks and 
the clean floor and the fresh-looking maps and pictures be- 
fore him on the wall, he l^egins to straighten himself up with a 
dignity of bearing and to feel impulses of courage and self-, 
respect and purpose never known to him l^efore. 


b. The posture and movements of the pupils should 
have proper attention. The practice of allowing children to 
sit on seats too high or too low, or of permitting them to 
lounge in their seats, is productive of bad resuUs. If there 
should be no bodily deformities there will be formed awkward 
and unnatural hal:)its of sitting, to embarrass the student in 
after hfe. Children who are required to sit in an erect and 
natural attitude are not only more healthy and symmetrical 
in their growth, but they are more cheerful and energetic -be- 
cause of the more favorable condition of their vital organs. 

c. The personal habits and general appearance of 
the teacher have a telling influence on the conduct and 
bearing of the pupils. Extravagance in anything is an indi- 
cation of bad taste, but the teacher who would be a good 
disciplinarian must continually bear about in his own body 
the marks of good training. He must observe habits of 
neatness and punctuality, and show a natural gentihty in pos- 
ture and actions. 

d. Gymnastics and Calisthenics have been introduced 
into many schools ^Yitll good results. These systematic exer- 
cises, when under the direction of a competent instructor (as 
such exercises should be), may be made a means for securing^ 
what the term calisthenics implies — "beautiful strength" — 
wholesome energy, natural symmetry and graceful movement. 
Manual training, when properly introduced into our schools^ 
promises to have a salutary influence on physical culture. 

e. Pupils should be instructed in the principles of 
physiology and hygiene. This instruction may be given in 
part by means of text books and in part by oral teaching. 
By a system of oral lessons, a thing indispensably necessary 
in the lower-grade work, children may be interested and re- 
ceive information on many things pertaining to the science of 
health, which they should learn before they can be expected 
to take up Physiology as a regular study in school. 

Instruction given on the principles of health should be ac- 
companied with teachings on physical morality. The child 


should learn, at a very early clay, not only how to grow and 
keep well, but he should be made to believe that it is his duty 
to preserve his health; that every time he violates a law of 
hygiene he commits a sin, and that any indulgence in this 
direction "will bring its penah^y bitter and sure," 



Topical Analysis, 

1. Definition. J 




1, The mental, moral and physical powers 
are inter-dependent in culture and en- 

2. Importance of j g Th^chamcter of an individual is influ- 
I enced by the symmetry discipline and 

[ strength of the body. 

(1. Bodily strength and symmetry, 
o rpi J J 2. Discipline of the physical powers. 

■ I 3. Naturalness in the bodily appetites. 
[ 4. A wholesome energy. 

'1. The nature and arrangement of the school 

2. Posture and movements of the pupils. 

3. Personal habits and general appearance of 

the teacher. 

4. Instruction on the laws of health and 


5. Gymnastics, calisthenics, &c. 

1 6. Manual training in the schools. 

4. Means and 

'1. All exercise should be normal. — It should be 
in harmony with the natural movements 
and attitudes of the body. 
2. Exercise should be neither violent nor ex- 
I haustive. 

Princi Ip'^ ' ^' Lxercise should be taken in the pure air and 
stated^ ^ under favorable and pleasant circustances. 

4. Desirable habits are acquired by careful train- 

5. Purity of body has much to do with purity 
of soul. 

6. "A physical fact is as sacred as a moral prin- 
L cipleV' 




There is an innate principle or force which leads us to do 
with ease and growing certainty what we do often. Upon the 
proper development and right tendency of this force largely 
rests substantial character. However good may be the inten- 
tions, and however strong may be the will power, without the 
support of well-fixed habits success is always uncertain. What 
then should he the relation of school discipline to the forma- 
tion of habits and what are some of the habits that need to 
have the interested care of the teacher? There are physical 
habits, mental habits and moral habits. That is to say, there 
are tendencies that very much influence the posture and move- 
ments of the body and largely determine its appetites, and 
there are tendencies that lead the mind in channels of thought 
and incline the will toward certain lines of conduct. Over all 
these the builder of character should have a watchful eye. 
However extensive l)e the book knowledge, and however high 
l)e the motives, the youth who starts out on the duties of life 
with wrong habits, is already on the road to certain faikire, 
and the only way to get out of this road is to correct his 

Nothing is more certainly ordained to each boy and girl 
than that they are to be under the influence of habits of their 
own forming. The only choice left to them and the guardian 
of their training is whether these habits shall be good or bad 
— helpful or hurtful. 

The child is hardly out of its cradle before habits are be- 
ginning to form that will have to do with its future destiny. 

Into almost every school there come boys and girls to whom 


the matter of arithmetic or English grammar is of far less im- 
portance than tliat of habit. But the skilful teacher soon 
learns that proper care extended to the habits by no means 
interferes with the instruction given in arithmetic and other 
branches or with the pupils capacity to learn, and the teacher 
Avho is careful to look after the habits of the pupil is doubly 
paid in the ganeral appearance and good order of the school. 
What then are some of the more important habits that 
properly come under the attention of school training, and 
should have the special care of the teacher. 

1. Habits of Obedience. In both the natural and the spir* 
ittual world there are certain fixed laws, and whatever l)e the 
undertaking, full success depends upon obedience to some one 
or more of these laws: He who would be well and strong 
must obey the laws of health and physical grow^th, and he 
who desires vigor and exactness of thought must regard the 
laws of mind, Thus in all worthy effort, obedience to law^ is 
the price of success. Tlie exhortation, "My son, forget not 
my kuv, but let thine heart keep my commandment" is of no 
less importance to-day than in the time of the wise teacher. 
Through its reasonable and consistent rules, and its wise and 
therefore natural methods, the school should foster in its pu- 
pils a sentiment of loyalty and a high respect for law. 

2. Habits of Accurate Observation. There are few 
things in which we differ more than in our habits of observa- 
tion. Two persons pass over t';ie same road ; one sees almost 
everything along the way, the other sees very little, or it may 
be that both see very much the same things, but while one 
has clear and definite ideas of the objects, the ideas of the 
other are much confused. The cause of the difierence is that 
the one has habits of accurate observation, while the other 
has not. As with these tivo passing over the road, so holds 
the lesson of experiment in the different walks and situations 
of life. The one who has acquired habits of accurate obser- 
vation is found to have more definite ideas and hence more 
reliable knowledge. 


Students who carefully observe, not only acquire definite 
conceptions of external objects, but their ideas obtained by 
reading are more nearly correct. As a rule, the accurate ob- 
server is the more interested and reliable thinker. Among 
different individuals there are differences of faculties and 
capacities. Yet the tendencies and powers of observation are 
very largely the result of training. The accurate observer 
becomes such by careful and frequent observations, and cor- 
rect habits of observing, if formed at all, are generally, in 
large part, formed during the first years of student life. At 
this time of early childhood, the faculties of observation are 
naturally very active, and in this day of natural history and 
object teaching, the school will fail of its opportunity and be 
derelict of duty that does not adapt its studies and methods 
to the natural training of these faculties, and thus do its part 
in helping mother nature to develop in the children habits of 
careful observation. 

3. Habits of Industry. — Activity is a law of nature, 
and, as such, is perhajjs nowhere more exemplified than in 
the busy make-up of the child. When this natural desire to 
do is taught to go in proper lines of systematic work, labor 
liecomes easy and the performance of duty a pleasure. It has 
been said, " Blessed is the man who has tound his work." It 
might be said, and with equal propriety ; blessed is the in_ 
dividual who. loves to work, wlio has retained the industrious 
habits of childliood. The work done is the true measure of 
success. It is not so much what one can do as it is what one 
will do. The former marks capacity, the latter measures the 
true worth, and depends upon the inclination to work. 

A chief end of education is the ability and inclination to do 
work, whether that work be mental or physical. 

The knowledge which is obtained at school is at best lim- 
ited, and very indefinite, but the pupil who has acquired the 
power and love of study is on the way to pleasant fields of 
research, and a more satisflictory scholarship. The great 
scholars of history were first industrious students, and the 


eminently useful have ever been busy workers. That school 
should be deemed the best success that gets the best results in 
the willing work of its pupils. 

4. Habits of Self-help. — Individualism is an essential 
element in reliable character. Without it there is but little 
independence of thought or conception of purpose. The man 
or woman without individualism is the flabby jelly-fish float- 
ing in the current of society. Now individualism is not the 
habit of self-help, but the two are very closely related. To 
cultivate the habit of is to strengthen the principle of 
individualism. Karl Rosenkranz has well said that " the end 
and aim of education is the emancipation of the youth. It 
strives to make him self-dependent, and as soon as he has be- 
come so, it wishes to retire and to be able to leave him to the 
sole responsibility of his actions." A chief end of the teacher's 
work then, is to assist the pupils in finding themselves and in 
learning somewhat of their powers, etc., and to direct them 
in the proper development and training of these powers. 

To attain this end the boys and girls must be thrown back 
onto themselves, and taught to rely as much as possible on 
their own resources. The work assigned should always be 
adapted to the capacities of the pupils. Then instead of do- 
ing the work for them they are only to have such assistance 
as will encourage them to do it for themselves. Whenever 
assistance is carried beyond this point it fails of its end. 

It generally requires less tact, patience and effort on the 
part of the teacher to do the work than to sufficiently enlighten 
and encourage the pupil, and is it not at this point, fellow 
teachers, that we are apt to fail, and is it not largely because 
of our failures at this point that the habit of self-help is so 
little manifest in most of our schools ? 

5. Habits relating to the movements and positions 
of the body. There is a certain inter-dependent relation be- 
tween the mental, moral and physical habits. A relation not 
likely to be over-estimated by the most careful educator. 
The boys and girls who regard the attitude and movements 


of the body, and are carefully temperate in their appetites, 
will not only excel in health and general appearance, but, 
other things equal, they will be more systematic and accurate 
in thought, and in all things more reliable. 

Unfortunate is the child whose teacher has a dull appre- 
ciation of bodily training, and unhappy should be the teacher 
whose school is filled with lounging boys and girls, whose 
gawky movements show little care, and whose illy-cultured 
tastes seek solace in the tobacco quid, the cigarette or the 

The nature and arrangement of the school room furniture, 
the seating of the pupils, the plan for calling and dismissing 
classes, the posture of pupils in the recitation and the every 
day example of the teacher may all be made potent influences 
in bodily training. 



Topical Analysis. 

1. Definition. 

A habit is a tendency to perform certain actions 
which is acquired by their frequent repeti- 



pq - 

2. As common to all 


3. Class 

s. \ 2. I 

4. How formed 

5. Correct 

All are more or less under the influ- 
ence of habit. 
Habit may be either good or bad. 

f 1. By repeated efforts. 

2. By not trying to form too many new hab- 
I its at the same time. 

I 3. By working in harmony with nature's 
1 laws. 

I 4. Bad habits are formed with but little ef- 
I fort, and are more generally the result 

t of foreign influences. 

f 1. They are normal. 
I 2. They tend to health, strength and 
-j activity. 

I 3. They improve the appearance and 
I influence of the individual. 

f 1, As a prime / Being essential to sub- 
end. \ stantial character. 
As an aid in the management of 
the school. 

f 1. Habits of obedience. 
I 2. Habits of accurate observa- 
I tion. 

\ 3. Habits of industry. 
I 4. Habits of self-help. 
I 5. Habits in the movements and 
L postures of the body. 

The nature and arrangement of 
the furniture in the school 
The plan for calling and dis- 
missing classes. 
The seating of the pupils. 
The posture of the pupils at 

desks and in class. 
The every day example of the 
L teacher. 

i sties of 

2. Value of -I 


3. Those of spe- 

cial interest 
or import- 

Aids in the 





1. The ability and tendencies of an individual are largely 
determined by the habits formed. 

2. The formation of correct habits tends to bring youth into 
harmony with the principles and laws of truth, and this is 

3. "Habits render labor easy and the performance of duty 
a pleasure." — Tate. 

4. " Habits fortify us against bad example and shield us 
from the force of sudden temptation." 

5. " Intellectual habits are not less essential to man than 
those habits that have relation to conduct." 

6. The habit of working out results from first principles 
and not by rules exercises a most salutary influence in the 
development of the faculties of children. 

7. The habit of relying on one's own efforts in stead of de- 
pending on help from others, has a healthful influence in the 
formation of reliable character. 

8. In its natural condition the body is symmetrical in 
form and graceful in posture and movement. The young 
man who comes out of school with protrusive chin, humped 
shoulders and unseemly habits, commences the race of life at 
a disadvantage. He may possess a disciplined mind, stored 
with knowledge ; yet his appearance is taken as an index 
of his character, and is, an influence against him., 




In the efforts to find a system of primary teaching adapted 
to the right training of the faculties of perception and reason- 
ing, there has grown up a tendency to neglect the culture of 
the memory. 

The introduction of object teaching, so very helpful to the 
interest and life of a school and highly adapted to the cul- 
tivation of other faculties, has not had a wholesome influence 
on the memory. 

Memory studies have given place to observation studies 
and thought studies, and thus the faculty of memory has 
suffered loss. 

Whatever may be said of the old blue-backed spelling-book 
those who thoroughly studied it make fewer mistakes in their 
orthography than some who learned to spell by the modern 
method and make more pretentions to scholarship. 

The writer has no inclination to call back the old spelling- 
book. Neither has he any disposition to call a h ilt to the 
efforts that are being made by the introductton of Nature's 
own methods for the cultivation of the faculties of observation 
and reasoning, but rather to encourage us that we may ex- 
tend the effort in the line of normal methods to the better 
training of the memory also — to the balanced culture of all 
the powers. 

The two principal elements of the memory are retention 
and recollection. 1. Retention is the power by which the 
mind retains knowledge. It is the ability of the mind to hold 
fast to what it has acquired, either as pictures or images of 
external objects taken in through the five senses, or as secon- 


dary concepts or ideas formed in the mind. 2. Recollection 
is the power by which the mind recalls knowledge. It is the 
ability of the mind to reach back into its storehouse and 
bring out the thing desired. 

These two principal elements taken together constitute the 
memory, which xnay be defined as the ability of the mind to 
retain and i-ecall knowledge. As thus understood and defined, 
the importance of the development of the memory is self-evi- 
dent. The memory is preliminary and auxiliary to all pro- 
cesses of thinking. How, then, may the memory be improved ? 
What are some of the means to be employed and the methods 
to be pursued in the cultivation of the memory? 

1. Cultivate habits of careful observation as a basis. 
Things are easily forgotten because they are not accurately 
known. The memory clings longest to those objects that are 
thoroughly understood. When in old age the memory seems 
to have let go of much of its former possessions, the familiar 
scenes of childhood — those pictures that were so definitely en- 
graved on the mind by the frequent opportunities of an active 
perception — remain clear and distinct. 

To understand a subject is to know it in all its relations, to 
see it from different standpoints. It is by the habit of definite 
observation — by a tendency to carefully view objects from 
their different sides that images are permanently impressed 
on the tablets of the memory. 

2. See that the mind is not encumbered with things 
frivolous. It is but natural for one to exercise a loo^e care 
over those things which are deemed of little value. There 
will be considerable difference in the care extended, whether 
the pocket contains a copper cent or a five dollar gold piece ; 
so with the contents of the memory. The individual who 
comes under the influence of such reading or associations as 
to fill the mind with worthless thought will hold his mental 
possessions with a disinterested looseness, and the memory 
will grow weak from lack of effort to retain. 

3. Cultivate a habit of systematic study. The mer- 


chant puts up his goods in the storehouse with an idea of tak- 
ing them down when called for. He measures off his room 
with reference to different departments and arranges his shelves 
and drawers in accordance with a definite system based on a 
definite purpose. The articles of merchandise are put into 
their places classified. When a clerk wishes an article he 
knows where it is. 

As with the merchandise, so it may be, in large measure, 
with the items of knowledge taken into the mind. In every 
branch of study there may be found certain leading principles 
or parts around which all minor principles and facts may be 
clustered and held together by the ties of relation and associa- 
tion. With the systematic student, the storehouse of knowl- 
edge has its apartments, and its contents are classified and 
arranged for the ready convenience of the mental errand-boy 
— the recollection. 

Extensive reading, after the manner of reading "book after 
book, with but little definite purpose in view, has an influence 
to weaken rather than strengthen the memory. The reader 
gets into the habit of reading for entertainment rather than 
with the idea of storing the memory. The mind gathers with 
neither the idea of retaining or reproducing. Facts collected 
without purpose or system make thought indefinite, while the 
power of the memory weakens from la^k of proper use. 

4. Cultivate attention. Attention gives clearness of con- 
ception, upon whicii ti;e power of memory largely depends. 
That of which the mind has a clear and distinct idea — that 
which it has carefully separated from other things and dis- 
tinctly considered in its differents parts and properties, it takes 
firm hold of and retains with a fixed grasp. Continuous at- 
tention fixes the idea by giving permanence to that impres- 
sion. It is the die that stamps the image on the tablet of the 

5. Cultivate a tendency to trust the memory. Noth- 
ing will tend more to develop a faculty or power tlian a con- 
fident reliance upon it as capable and trustworthy. Out of 


an inclination to trust the memory will grow the habit of re- 
lying upon it and of using it. 

6. Cultivate the habit of associating things easily re- 
membered with those recalled with greater difficulty. 

The memory may thus take advantage of the law of associa- 
tion, and bring into i^rofitable co-operation its spontaneous 
and volitional 230wers. 

The above are suggested as some of the means by which the 
memory may be improved. Nothing can give more satisfac- 
tory evidence of the proj^riety of the statement than an indi- 
vidual experiment. 



Topical Analisis. 

J. n ... j Memory is the faculty for retaining and recol- 

uennmon. | lecting images or ideas in the mind. 

t , ,, 1 • J f Spontaneous. 
As to the kind.|/^^.^.^^^^_^^^^^i^^^i^^_ 

As to place in the natural order of the mind's development. 

1. As preliminary and auxiliary to all pro- 
cesses of thinking. 

2. As a source of pleasure. 

f 1. Cultivate habits of careful observation 

I as a basis. 

I 2, Disencumber the mind of things friv- 

j 3. Cultivate the habit of systematic study 
by instruction given on a regular and 

As to import- 

5. How aided in 

connected plan. 

4. Cultivate attention. 

5. Cultivate a tendency to trust the mem- 

6. Cultivate the habit of associating things 
easily remembered with those recall- 

[ ed with greater difficulty. 

( i. Do everything with attention. 

2. Things are easily forgotton because they are 
not accurately known. 

3. Similar objects of thought recall one another. 

n , j 4. The remembrance of the cause suggests the 

Remarks, i ^^^^^^ 

5. Dissimilar objects of thought tend to recall 
one another. 

6. Things associated in time and place suggest 
[ one another. 




There is hardly a business or calling in which the element 
of foresight is more needed than in the every day work of 
school teaching. 

The ability to look ahead and see duty before the hour of 
duty, together with a precaution that provides for emergencies 
before the time of emergency, carries many a teacher over 
difficult places and often makes the way seem smooth and 
pleasant which would otherwise be hard and full of trouble. 

The individual who takes the place of care-taker and in- 
structor of the miscellaneous company of children usually 
brought together in the ordinary district school becomes at 
once the center of a busy little world with duties and respon- 
sibilities coming in from every side. Apart from the regular 
routine of school w^ork there will be the thousand and one 
unlooked-for duties and incidents to claim attention. To meet 
these responsibilities, perform these duties and give the proper 
turn to these incidents requires the closest economy of time 
and the best system of work. 

Under the head of what may be called preliminary work 
much may be done to enhance the good standing and lighten 
the daily burdens of the teacher. 

Then what is this preliminary work of the teacher? AVhen 
does it begin and when does it end? 

First. There is a class of work which comes in between 
the time of engagement and the morning on which the 
school is to commence. 

Notwithstanding the importance ol these duties, and op- 


portunities, they are too often neglected and left to be looked 
after when the teacher is over-crowded with other duties. 
Through this neglect the teacher makes a bad start which is 
apt unfavorably to influence the work of the entire term. 

1. There should be a definite understanding between the 
teacher and employers. The conditions of the contract should 
be definitely understood by all parties and expressed in 
writing. It is the only safeguard against misunderstanding 
and trouble. 

2. A comfortable and proper boarding place should be se- 
cured, and this means much towards the success of the 
school. The teacher cannot afford even to seem to be a neigh- 
borhood partisan. All teachers must also be students. 
While they should be sociable and in the true sense enter 
into the life of the community in which they labor, they 
must have a place for retirement, relaxation and study, a 
little private home of their own to which they can retire for 
reenforcement. The teacher should be amply supplied with 
good well prepared food. If any one should be favored with 
tasteful and wholesome nourishments it is the hard-working 
teacher of the common school who is heavily taxed in body 
brain and heart. 

3. The earnest teacher with a good store of precaution and 
common sense goes into the field of labor two or three days 
before the commencement of his school, carefully selects a 
boarding place, visits the school house, sees that it is cleaned 
and the furniture properly arranged, and if likely to be 
needed, prepares the fuel for starting a fire ; brushes the dust 
off of the maps and charts and hangs them up on the wall, 
also hangs up two or three additional maps or charts that he 
had bought to use in some other school-house where there 
were no maps; then taking a place at the teacher's desk looks 
the situation over, and goes back to his boarding place' to 
think over a plan for organizing the school which is already 
becoming to him an interesting reality. Some of the boys or 


girls of the district who are passing by the school-house stop 
and look m through a window, see marks of the new teachers 
interest and skill, speak of it to others, and, before the day 
is passed, it is generally known that the teacher has come and 
the impression prevails that the school is to be a success. 
On Monday .morning the teacher goes to a clean and well 
arranged school-house with a definite plan of organization in 
his mind. Under these favorable circumstances he meets the 
pupils as they collect on the first morning of the school, talks 
with them about their studies, records their names, assists them 
in the selection of their seats etc. When the time has arrived 
for the formal opening the school is partly organized and the 
pupils and teacher are beginning to feel acquainted and are 
already becoming interested in the work before them. 

Second. Under the head of preliminary work is the prepa- 
ration for each day's work during the session. Each day 
brings its own tasks and each task requires its preparation. 
Hence the close of each day's school finds the teacher con- 
fronted with the work of making preparation for the duties of 

1. The school room is to be swept and well dusted. In 
some places this work is delegated to another yet it will gen- 
erally fall to the teacher's lot to see that it is done and it 
should be done on the evening after the close of school. 

2. The lessons are to be prepared for to-morrow's recitations. 
No teacher is likely to get beyond the necessity of definite 
preparation. He may be well acquainted with the subject to 
be taught, yet each recitation has its peculiar circumstances. 
The abilities and needs of the class, the subject-matter of the 
lesson most important to be taught, what shall be assigned 
for the next lesson, &c., should all be so definitely determined 
in the teacher's mind that he can conduct the recitation with- 
out having to rely on the text. 

To come up to this standard requires the special prepara- 
ration of each lesson ; yet there are but few investments that 
give^better returns. Freed frora a dependance on the text- 


book the teacher is at liberty to give more attention to the 
free discussion of the subject-matter of the lesson and in every 
way have a better command over the school. 

3. Any miscellaneous work likely to require attention du- 
ring the coming day should be considered. The precautious 
teacher is apt to foresee many of the irregular and contingent 
duties and incidents, and determine beforehand on the meth- 
ods for meeting them. 

4. Any unfinished work of the day now closing is to be 
attended to^ such as the examination of written work brought 
up by a elass, which it was not convenient to examine during 
the recitation. 

With the above tasks complete, eight hours refreshing 
sleep in a quiet and well aired chamber will renew the body 
and rest the mind. 

5. In the morning the house is to be opened and made 
ready for the reception of the pupils. This, as in the case of 
sweeping and dusting, may be delegated to another ; yet it is 
the teacher's place to be on the grounds early and see that the 
house is ready. This affords an excellent opportunity for mani- 
festing an interest in the pupils and of setting an example of 
promptitude and kindness. At the intervals for recess, during 
the day, much vexation may be avoided and advantage gain- 
ed by spending a little time in ventilating the room, looking 
after its temperature, or adjusting misplaced furniture, &c. 

Under the subject of preliminary work much has been said 
that every teacher of common sense already knows, but I 
have thus given much space to little things because it is the 
little things that we are apt to disregard, and it is in the ne- 
glect of the little things that the teacher often makes the 
greatest mistakes and fails of success. 



Topical Analysis. 


hJ 2. 


Before opening a ^ 
term of school 

IS m 


for each 
day's work - 
in term 

1. There should be a definite understand- 
ing between teacher and employers. 

2. A comfortable boarding place should be 

3. Teacher should see that the school room 


Furniture and fixtures pro- 
perly arranged. 

4. Teacher should have a definite plan of 

5. The seating and partial classification of 
pupils before the formal opening of 
the school. 

To see that the school room is put in order. 

The preparation of each lesson likely to 
come up during the day. 

The consideration of any miscellaneous 
work likelv to come up during the day. 

The examination of such work, brought up 
by pupils, as it was not convenient to ex- 
amine during the recitations. 
5. The opening of the house in the morning. 

3. Attention to the school room at f 1. Warming, &c. 
the intervals during the day. 1 2. Ventilation, &c. 




1. The teacher who comes to a clean and well-arranged 
school room on the first mornmg of school, with a definite 
plan of organization and work, will be apt to have a pleasant 
day for hmiself, and be likely to make a favorable im- 
pression upon his pupils that will last through the term. 

2. It is important that the preliminary work of each day 
be done, in most part, the day before that the teacher may be- 
gin the day's work rested and refreshed. 

3. The exercise of a proper precaution in looking after the 
arrangement, temperature, ventilation and cleanliness of the 
school room before the commencement of the clay's work, and 
before the conmiencement of work after each recitation, will 
yield a rich reward in the order and progress of the pupils 
and in the ease and satisfaction of the teacher. 

•I. The teacher who goes into school with the lessons of the 
day all thoroughly prepared will have but little need of refer- 
ence to the text during the recitations. Thus freed from a 
dependence on the text-book, the teacher is at liberty to give 
the more attention to the subject matter of the lesson and to 
the general wants of the school. 

5. In preliminary work the teacher often meets with that 
which is called by some school-rocmi drudgery. Such is not 
the most pleasant part of school work, but it is essential, and 
if not done by some one else it should be done by the teacher. 
A love for the work and an abiding interest for those for whom 
we have undertaken to labor is the best panacea for all such 




There is no place in which a systematic arrangement of 
work gives better returns than in the school-room. With so 
many different things to do within a given limited time, the 
questions what and when arejoften pressing if not perplexing. 
Nothing less than a careful economy of time will carry the 
ordinary teacher successfully through the day's work. To 
secure this economy by allowing to each class its proper at- 
tention at a time best suited to the general needs of the differ- 
ent pupils, and to the needs of the school, is the chief end of 
the programme. It would be impracticable to attempt a 
programme suited to the varied needs of the different schools ; 
yet, whatever be the character of the schools, there are always 
certain general points to be considered and principles to be 
regarded in the formation of the programme. 

1. The nature of the programme should, be determined by 
the age and advancement of the pupils. 

Those who are older and more advanced require the longer 
time for recitation, while the younger scholars, who require a 
shorter time for recitation, should recite more frequently. The 
older students will study longer without intermission or a 
change of exercise. The smaller children require less time to 
prepare their lessons. 

2. The Nature of the subject studied should be con- 
sidered in the arrangement of the programme. In almos 
every school there are certain branches that are studied wdth 
more interest than others. In the ordinary district school 
arithmetic is generally considered more important, and studied 
with more interest than geography or language. In some 


schools the reverse is found to be true. As a rule pupils study 
better in the fore part of the day, and the inclination is very 
strong to study a branch just before recitation. Hence, by 
having the less interesting subjects come up for recitation in 
the early part of the day the pupils will be more inclined to 
study in the afternoon. The boy who likes arithmetic, but 
does not think much of "grammar," will study arithmetic 
with interest in the afternoon, in case the recitation of his 
class comes late in the day. 

In the morning he is more inclined to study, and can be 
induced to study grammar with some degree of interest if the 
recitation be arranged to come at a proper time during the 

If he recites his arithmetic and other subjects in which he 
is interested in the fore part of the day, he will not be apt to 
study these branches with much interest in the afternoon. He 
thinks little of his grammar and will, therefore, not work very 
much at grammar. The chances are very much in favor of 

3. The programme should also be made with regard to 
the size of the classes. Pupils are more easily controlled 
in the recitation than at their desks. 

When they are restless and careless and tired of study, they 
may be awakened and interested by a lively and pointed reci- 

In the morning and following the recesses, when the school 
is in a good condition for study, let the smaller and more ad- 
vanced classes recite. In the latter part of the day, and at 
other times when the pupils are tired and restless and need a 
change of exercise, call out the large classes and enliven them 
by interesting recitations. By this method the students may 
not recite so well in these particular classes as they would if 
the recitations were to come at a different time, and it may be 
harder for the teacher to secure an interested attention, yet 
the recitation is a means to an end, and one of the chief ends 
of the recitation is to create a permanent interest in study, not 


simply an interest in one or two subjects, but in all branches 
studied. At what time should children be aroused and di- 
rected in their thoughts if it be not when they are dull and 
restless? When all are interested in study the recitation 
is not so much needed. By arranging for the larger classes 
to recite at times when the pupils have but little disposition 
to study, two points at least may be gained: 1. A greater 
amount of work may be accomplished. 2. Better order may 
be secured. 

4. More time should be given to the work of the 
forenoon than the afternoon, and also more before the short 
recesses (there being one in the forenoon and one in the after- 
noon) than after them. In the morning the scholars are .well 
rested and lively, and will be interested in their work for a 
considerable length of time without recreation. The same 
may be said with reference to the time after the noon interval. 



Topical Analysis. 



1. Prime end. 

2. How determined. 

When to be 

Principles -{ 
stated. ' 

1. Economy of time. 

2. Aid in the government of the school. 

3. Interested work among the pupils. 
I 4. Justice to each class. 

[ 5. Good habits of study. 

f 1. By the nature of studies. 

I 2. By the age and advancement of the 

\ pupils. 

I 3. By the size of the classes. 

[4. By the number of classes. 

As soon as the wants of the school are suffi- 
ciently known. If possible, as early as the 
second morning of the term. 

1. Arrange for the less interesting studies when 

pupils are most inclined to study. 

2. The best time to have a student recite is when 

he feels least inclined to study. 

3. The largest classes should recite when pupils 

are most restless. 

4. The younger the pupils the shorter and the 

more frequent the recitations. 

5. The mind should occupy itself with different 

departments of study in a philosophical or- 

6. They have the most time who oest use the 

time which they have. 






Opening exercises. 

*First reader class 


. Grammar class 


^Primary geography and history. 



Second reader class 


Third reader. 




11 Place work on l)oard to l3e copied by class in numbers. 

Geography and history — class A 

1 1 -45 

Language lessons. 

Class in numbers. 


1 Place work on board, to be copied by class In first reader 


Arithmetic— class A. 


First reader class. 







Oral lessons 


Second reader class 


Fourth reader. 


First reader class 


...'. Orthography or phonics. 


*First reader class includes the chart class. 

§Geography and history are taught conjointly. 

II This maybe done during recess or at close of recess before recitations. 

The subject matter of a programme cannot be fully arrang- 
ed till the wants of the school are known. The above is 
given as suggestive of what may be the programme of an 
ordinary district school, 




In the routine of school work the recitation holds the chief 
place. It is here that the teacher comes into closest contact 
with the pupils. It is here that their abilities are measured, 
their work tested, and new work assigned. And it is in the 
recitation more than anywhere else, that the pupils receive 
their best inspirations and acquire their love for study. 

To fail here is to fail everywhere, while the teacher who 
succeeds in the recitations generally succeeds in other parts of 
the work. 

Then how shall the recitation Icf^ made a success? What is 
its prime end ? What is the work to be done in the recitation? 
And how shall this work be properly and satisfactorily ac- 
complished ? 

The object, or chief end, of the recitation may be said to 
comprise : 

1. Discipline in the definite and accurate expression 
of thought. In the properly conducted recitation the pupils 
are drilled both in thinking and in talking — in the recollection 
of ideas and the elaboration of thought, and also in the ex- 
pression of these ideas, or thoughts, to others. 

2. The increase of the pupils' knowledge of the sub- 
ject matter. In the discussion of the lesson the minds of the 
scholars may be so kindled and directed as not only to have 
more definite ideas of knowledge already gained, but also to 
make valuable additions to present acquirements. It is not the 
intention of the writer to indorse the notion that the chief work 
of the teacher is to impart instruction, but rather that he is to 
be an inspiration to effort, and, as such, so to wake up and 


direct the minds of the class that they may gathet new 
thoughts, as well as obtain a more definite conception of the 
ideas acquired in the preparation of the lesson. 

3. To awaken an interest in study. The recitation falls 
below the correct standard whenever it fails to kindle in the 
different members of the class higher notions of and a greater 
interest in the subject-matter of the lesson. Knowledge is de- 
sirable, yet the best results are secured only when an increase 
in knowledge is accompanied with an increased interest in the 
subject of study. 

4. To teach pupils how to study. What is generally 
regarded as incapacity, or indifference, often disappears 
when the pupil has learned how to study. There are but 
few teachers of experience who do not remember some boy 
or girl who for sever<d days, and often weeks, in the beginning 
of a term, was evidently making very little progress ; but at 
length, when proper care had been exercised in showing pu- 
pils how to take hold of subjects, to see their different parts, 
to separate the known from the unknown, and how to take up 
and investigate the several unknown parts, the backward 
one soon took rank with the best in the class. It is in the 
recitation that the best opportunities are offered for leading 
students into correct methods and habits of study. 

Then how shall the above-named ends be attained? 
What the position of the class? What the chief work to be done, 
and what the general plan and order of the recitation? While 
with the practical teacher rules and methods are often very much 
modified by circumstances, yet, in all cases there are certain 
principles to be regarded by those who aim at best results. 
In every school room there is, generally, some place which is 
the best place for the class during the recitation, and the 
successful teacher is apt to find that place. First : It should be 
in convenient view of the blackboard. The skilled teacher 
hears few lessons without the use of crayon. Second: The class 
should also be so situated that the teacher can see the eyes 


of each member from the different points hi the room. This 
allows the preceptor to change to any part of the room with- 
out interruption in the recitation. Not that he shall be 
expected continually to walk from place to place over the 
room (yet, as a rule, the successful teacher of the district 
school spends but little time in the chair), but in case his 
presence is needed at any point, he can quietly make the 
change without attracting the attention of the school, or in 
any way interrupting the routine of work. 

The chief work of the recitation should consist of, first 
a review of the previous lesson, second an examination of the 
work done by pupils out of class, third a free discussion of the 
subject-matter of the present lesson, and, fourth the assignment 
of a new lesson. These parts may not occur in the order given 
and the time allotted to the several parts will vary with the 
circumstances, yet they are to be regarded as essential parts 
of the recitation. 

The review serves, not only to impress more thoroughly 
the subjects of previous lessons, but it generally furnishes a 
good basis for the discussion of present lesson. In case the 
work is prepared and brought to the class on paper, it is often 
found more convenient to examine it out of school hours. 

In the discussion of the lesson the scholars are helped in 
the solution of difficult questions, encouraged and shown how 
to take hold of a subject and investigate it. Their knowl- 
edge of the subject is extended and made more definite, and 
their interest in study increased. 

The assignment of the lesson is apt to receive too little 
attention. Its importance, as entitled to a part of the period 
allotted to the recitation, is overlooked or ignored by too 
many teachers. A lack of time and care in assigning lessons 
bears its natural fruits in the indefinite atid ill-prepared work 
of the pupils. 

And it is no less true that the efforts carefully put forth in 
allotting new work to the class will produce their rich harvest 
in industry, order, and labor well performed. 


In the mode and process of conducting a recitation, each 
teacher should be, in some measure, original. To succeed he 
must be something of a method within himself, yet not out 
of harmony with the natural laws of culture. Under this 
heading the following suggestions are offered. 

1. The teacher should understand the subject, and be in- 
terested in it before beginning the recitation. Interest begets 
interest, and it is difficult to instruct others in w^hat one does 
not himself know. 

2. There should be no head to the class. 

3. The manner of reciting should be free and natural, not 

4. The subject-matter of the lesson should be introduced in 
a systematic order. 

5. Call on the timid and disinterested often. 

6. As a rule, do not excuse a pupil that says, " I don't 
know !" — Give him another question, or thea sme one in a dif- 
ferent form. 

7. Adapt your questions to the grade and nature of the 

8. First give the question, then name the pupil to recite. 

9. If students are inattentive or disorderly put them to work. 

10. Depend on your power to instruct and inspire, not 
upon sharp words and other punishments. 



Topical Analysis. 



f 1. Development of powers — chiefly of expression. 

1. Prime J 2. Increase of pupil's knowledge of subject-matter. 

end. j 3. To awaken an interest in subject-matter. 
[4. To teach pupils how to study. 

fl. Keview of f)revious lesson. 

2. Work to J 2. Examination of work done by pupils. 

be done. 1 3. Discussion of subject-matter. 
[4, Assignment of new lesson. 

fl. Should be in convenient view of the black- 

3. Position | board. 

of class. \ 2. Class should be so situated that teacher can 
see the eyes of each member from differ- 
[ ent points in the room. 

1. There should be no head to the class. 

2. Call on the timid and disinterested often. 

3. The manner of reciting should be free and 

4. The subject-matter of the lesson should be 
introduced in a systematic order. 

5. First give the question then name the pupil 
to recite. 

6. If a pupil is inattentive or disorderly put 
him to work. 

7. Depend on your power to instruct and in- 
spire and not on sharp words and other 

8. As a rule, do not excuse a pupil that says "I 
don't know." 

9. Adapt the questions to the grade of the pu- 

Suggestions ■ 
on methods. ' 




1. The assignment of the lesson generally receives too little 
attention. Each pupil should have assigned him something 
definite to do that he can do and that will occupy his time. 

2. A common error in assigning a lesson is in attempting 
too much. This leads to a lack of thoroughness and hence a 
lack of interest. 

3. ''Schools spend too much time in teaching facts, and not 
enough in teaching methods of study." 

4. A teacher should guard against the habit of talking too 
much in the recitation. It is the part of the pupils to recite 
the lesson and not the teacher. 

5. A pupil is best helped when encouraged to help himself 

6. The true teacher is an inspiration to effort and not one 
who simply imparts instruction. 

7. The most satisfactory method is that which will secure 
the greatest amount of work from each member of the class 
at each recitation. 

8. The recitation should not proceed in the presence o 
inattention and disorder. 

9. The influence of the recitation should be to direct the 
minds of the class to the subject and not so much to the con- 
tents of the text, and to develop in the puj^ils habits of self- 
reliance instead of too much dependence upon the help of 
the teacher. 

10. The student that knows least about the lesson has the 
greatest need of the recitation. 

11. "One difficulty at a time to children." 

12. From the known to the unknown should be the order 
in the recitation. 




There is probably no better index to the general character 
of a school than the spirit of work manifested by the pupils. 

The superintendent visits school A. Here he finds the 
teacher and pupils working with a lively interest. Thence 
he gees into school B, located in the same township or 
ward, where he finds but little of the spirit of work seen in 
gchool A. The t^^acher is, perhaps, working hard enough, 
and, for the time being, manifests sufficient interest in the 
work, but the pupils seem to be very much in the condition 
of an individual who hardly knows ivhat to do, how to do, or 
even has very much of a disposition to do. They do not 
seem to have either a purpose, plan or desire for work. The 
verdict rendered is that school A is a success, and that school 
B is in most j^art, a failure. A failure, first, because the pupils 
are not becoming interested in study ; second, because they 
are forming habits of idleness instead of developing habits 
of industry ; and third, because they are making but little 
gain either in knowledge or strength. 

Now, while we regard the teacher in school A a success, we 
should not decide that the teacher in school B is necessarily a 
failure. Such differences in results can often be traced to a 
difference in the methods employed. The teacher in school A 
appears to excel in ability to arouse and keep alive a 
wholesome spirit of work among the pupils, and to this 
ability is attributed in a large measure the success of the school. 
Hence the question. How can a teacher obtain such an ability? 
What are the means and methods by which the teacher may be 


aided in efforts to awaken and maintain a spirit of earnest 
work among his pupils? The answer to this question may 
be largely found in the examination of the following subjects: 
First. The loork to he done by the pupils out of cLiss. Second, 
The manner of assigning this work ; and Third. The examina- 
tion and disposition of work done by the pupils. 

Fi7^st. The work to be done by pupils out of class. 
As regards the departments and branches of study, the sub- 
ject-matter of the work will depend upon the age, advance- 
ment, and circumstances of the pupil. For the present 
purpose it will be sufficient to say of the work to be assigned : 
first, it should be definite; second, it should be such work 
as the pupils can do; and third, it should be sufficiently 
difficult and extensive to call into exercise their best 
abilities and to occupy their time. If the work assigned 
be not definite (as is often the case when the teacher says, 
"Take the next lesson" — "Take the next five pages," etc.), 
the pupil takes up his task hardly knowing how to proceed. 
He has a very unhmited conception of what he is expected 
to do. The teacher has s lid, "Take the next lesson." What 
does the expression mean ? If in arithmetic, sliall he commit 
to memory the rules and definitions and solve all the problems 
or only a part of them? If in history, physiology, or geography, 
shall he memorize all the text, a part of it, or none of it? Shall 
he simply studv the book, or aided by the book, shall he study 
the subject? In this condition of doubt and uncertainty, the 
pupil solves a few problems or reads the lesson over a time or 
two and takes his chances at the recitation. 

Though the work be definitely assigned, if it be difficult 
beyond the capacity of the pupils, discouragement follows, 
and the boy or girl is industrious indeed that will work very 
earnestly when encouraged with so little hope of success. 
Again, if the work be not sufficiently difficult to call forth 
the best efforts of the pupils, thry are likely to become careless 
and indolent by doing wnat can be done with little exertion. 
It is characteristic of a boy or girl to enjoy doing a hard 

thing. They prize alike the stimulus of earnest effort and the 
encouragement of victory. When the task assigned is not 
sufficient to occupy the time of the scholars tliey are 
apt to indulge themselves in idleness and become disorderlv. 

Second, The assignment of work :o l)e done out of 
class has an importance which is seldom fully appreciated. 
The part of the recitation that should be occupied in assign- 
ing the new lesson will depend, in a great measure, upon the 
nature of the subject and the age, advancement, and interest 
of the students. There snould be time enough given, how- 
ever, for the different members of the class to get a definite 
idea of the work designed to be done, the parts requiring 
special study, the parts to be prepared and brought up for 
examination, the manner of preparing, etc., and also for some 
discussion of the subject-matter of the new lesson with a view 
to awaken a curiosity and interest in the class. 

The discussion of the subject-matter may generally accom- 
pany the assigning of the lesson, and it is especially of im- 
portance to the younger scholars in order that they may enter 
upon the preparation of the lesson with some interest already 
awakened in the subject. It is of greater importance when the 
pupils are lacking in interest, or when the subject is difficult 
or mostly new, as when a class passes to a new subject. With 
small scholars it is often better to assign a part of the lesson 
when the members of the class are at their desks. This may 
be done by putting work on the blackboard, etc. 

In determining the subject-matter proper for a lesson it is 
the common error to expect too much of the class. One 
teacher relates that in her experience she had, on different oc- 
casions, discovered that she was assigning work to be done by 
the class which she herself could not reasonably perform 
within the time allotted to the students. And what teacher 
could not relate something of the same experience ? Think 
of assigning as the lesson of an ordinary class four or five 
pages of problems in arithmetic, or perhaps five problems in 
partial payments, and these embracing the principles of two 


or three different rules. Yet are not these fair samples of the 
lessons which are daily assigned in many schools ? There 
may probably be found some members in the average class 
who will be able to solve five problems in partial payments 
within the one and a-half or two hours given to arithmetic, 
yet would there not be more gained in the point of substantial 
advancement if this time were spent on a less number of 
problems ? As a case in point, let the students, for a lesson in 
partial payments, be required to solve one or two problems 
(one is often found to be quite enough) and put their work in 
definite and systematic form on paper, to be examined at the 
recitation. In subjects where problems require less work a 
larger number may be assigned to be solved, and the work 
prepared as above. Experience teaches that one problem 
solved by the student and brought to the cla^s copied in this 
definite form is equal to a half a page disposed of in the usual 
way. By this method the different members of the class may 
be kept busy, while at the same time the class may be held 
together. The forward pupils will have enough to do to keep 
them from idleness and mischief, while the more backward 
will not have so much as to discourage them. All will be 
more interested and thorough in their knowledge of the sub- 
ject. The work assigned should be sufficient to keep the pu- 
pils busy, but let the rule be, one central subject at a time, 
wdth enough exercises to keep the pupils employed. To at- 
tempt more, generally results in a lack of thoroughness, and 
hence a lack of interest. There are different methods by 
which pupils may prepare their lessons and arrange their 
work for examination by the teacher, but there is probably 
no better plan than that adopted in those schools in which 
certain definite parts of some or all of the lessons are brought 
to the class on slates, tablets, or papers prepared for the pur- 

Third. The examination and proper disposition of work 
done by the pupils has much to do with the spirit of industry 
and general order in a school. It is a wholesome stimulus 


to feel that one's efforts are continually being measured and 
appreciated. This is especially true of children. As a con- 
tinual incentive to the class to bring their work up in good 
shape, the teacher must be diligent to give due attention to 
the work thus prepared. The part of the le-son which is 
brought to the class on paper may be examined during the 
recitation, or at some convenient time out of school hours. A 
teacher may not always find it convenient, or even necessary, 
to examine the work copied thus and brought to the recitation. 
In either case it is better that the work be collected 
and passed into the hands of the teacher. The scholars are 
m this way continually reminded that their work is important. 
The younger the pupils the greater the importance that 
their work be frequently graded. Yet even the older students 
will work more earnestly and systematically when their work 
is often carefully examined by an appreciative teacher. How 
to grade the work of a class has long been a vexed question 
among teachers, and it will probably be some time yet be- 
fore it receives a satisfactory answer. Even with our best 
methods of marking, grades cannot be made very reliable in- 
dexes of scholarship, and when used for this purpose alone 
the results are seldom, if ever, satisfactory. But when judici- 
ously employed as a means for measuring the efforts of the 
students as seen in the work done, a system of grading has 
an encouraging and helpful influence upon a class or school. 
In grading scholars there is a great variety of standards, 
some grading high and others low. It is not the purpose 
of this article to say which is the proper standard. There is 
more in the application than in the standard. With our 
minds disabused of the idea that grades are to mark scholar- 
ship we shall have but little difficulty about standards. The 
chief end of grading is to regulate and encourage. Scholars 
should not be marked so low as to discourage, or so high as 
to give them wrong notions of scholarship or work. In all 
cases let them know that their grades will be determined by 
the work they do, both in class and out of class, and that earnest 
effort will be appreciated, though followed by small results. 



Topical Analysis. 

The work to -{ 
' be done. I 

1. As to im- 

r fl. Advancement in knowledge. 

I 2. To awaken a spirit of work. 
1. The End. { 8. To keep pupils profitably occupied. 
I 4. To cultivate habits of industry. 
[5. To aid in the government of the school. 
f 1. It should be something definite to do that 
i the pupils can do and that will occupy 

their time. 
It should not be so difficult as to discourage 
nor so easy as not to call into exercise 
I the best energies of the pupils, 

f L It should be definite. 
I 2. In new or difficult subjects the assign- 
The assignment J ment of the lesson should be accom- 

of work. 1 panied with some discussion of the 

I subject. 

[3. It should not be too hurriedly done. 
f f 1. It is a stimulus to study. 

' 2. It holds up a standard of 

measurement and is a 

I continual incentive to do 

L well-finished work. 

fl. Sometimes grading the 

work, sometimes not 

1 grading. 

2. The younger the pupil 
I the more important 

that the work be care- 
I fully graded. 

-{ 8. Grades should be used 
I more to encourage ef- 

I fort than to measure 

scholarship — not so 
low as to discourage, 
not so high as to give 
false notions of schol- 
l i, arship. 

fl. With the child, activity is a law of nature. 
I 2. "The idle brain is the devil's workshop." 
Principles ' ^- ^^^^^^^ ^^'^ systematic work, accurate and 
stated '' systematic thought. 

■ '' It is a wholesome stimulus to feel that one's 
efforts are continually being measured and 

The examina- 
tion of the - 
work done 

2. As to meth 





School government is generally regarded as the most diffi- 
cult part of school work. 

It has been estimated that ninety per cent, of all the failures 
in teaching have had their origin in bad government. Closely 
related to the above conclusions is an idea somewhat preva- 
lent among educators and others, that the power of governing 
is a part of the individuality — that government is neither an 
art nor a science — ^that it is a " natural gift," rather than a 
power that can be acquired by observation, study and practice. 

Some persons are, by nature, better adapted to the work of 
school government than others. Just so we find some per- 
sons more naturally adapted to the study of mathematics, 
some to the natural sciences, and some to the study of the 

While one branch of study may be learned more readily by 
one person, and another more readily by another person, a 
general knowledge of either branch may be acquired by any 
one who will give it sufficent attention and effort. 

And cannot the same be said in reference to school govern- 

A knowledge of mathematics implies an acquaintance with 
certain general principles in their application to the solution 
of problems and the demonstration of the theorems. 


What of school government? Is it not also a science? 
Are there not certain general principles that underlie the 
control and discipHne of children— principles that may be 
learned and obst;rved by le tcliers with definite and practical 
results, just as one may learn and employ the principles of 
mnthematics, chemistry, i)hysiology, or any other science? 

And is it not the case that the successful governor is suc- 
cessful largely because of his obedience to these laws or prin- 
ciples ? 

If school government is a science then we are able to 
explain why it is that we have so many failures. Those who 
have had instructions in government have studied it more as 
an art than a science. 

It has been too much the custom to study the plans of suc- 
cessful governors and managers of schools and then endeavor 
to govern as they governed. Normal schools have thus far 
done but little more than instruct their pupils in empirical 

Some very excellent methods have been introduced and in 
a large number of cases very much to the improvement of the 
schools. Yet on the introduction of these same methods 
under different circumstances, there have been some bad 

These facts do not show that there can be no satisfactory 
methods, so much as they show that methods must not be 
empirical. They must be able to adjust themselves to new 
circumstances and therefore cannot be determined by experi- 
ence alone ; they must be based on principles as well. School 
government is both a science and an art. As a science, 
mental and moral philosophy and physiology form the basis. 




The End. Governing Forces. &c 

Whatever the importance attached to government, it must 
ever be regarded as a means to an end, and the efficiency of 
a method must be determined by its ability to attain the end 
sought. What then is the end of school government? What 
is the influence that a successful system of government shall 
be expected to have upon the pupils of a school ? The end 
ot government in the school is chiefly comprehended in the 
development of moral tendencies and the formation 
of correct habits. 

Under the head of moral tendencies first to be noticed is 
truthfulness. There is probably no characteristic in child- 
hood or youth which promises more for the future than that of 
truthfulness. It is an index of an honest heart, and points 
forward to a life of purpose and integrity. A love for the 
truth for truth's sake and a confidence in the tendencies and 
power of truth furnish the basis of substantial character, and 
without these the foundation is but sand. 

Somewhat related to truthfulness and apt to be influenced in 
the government of pupils is confidence in humanity. For- 
tunate is the individual whose eyes are inclined to look on the 
bright side of human conduct. From trusting others he 
learns to trust himself, and thus grows stronger in his own in- 

The power of self-control is an important element in 
the moral character, and should ever be regarded in the dis- 


cipline of the schools. "The aim of your discipline," says 
Spencer, "should be to produce a self-governing being, not to 
produce a being to be governed by others." 

The motives of an individual will in the end determine the 
nature of his conduct, though actions which are right within 
themselves may sometimes be obtained through improper 
motives. In dealing with children the motive should be 
made the end rather than the conduct. 

The habits of the pupils decide in a large measure the 
general order of a school. Through continued discipline 
habits are formed or modified. Hence, a very close relation 
of interdependence is found to exist between the formation 
of habits and the government of pupils. While the order of 
the school is not the chief end, through proper efforts to se- 
cure a chief end (that is, the formation of correct habits), 
order is apt to be obtained. The great work of school life is 
the formation of proper habits. Good habits of thought and 
conduct are vastly more important to a student than the 
knowledge which he may acquire while in school. 

To the above as constituting the end of school government 
may be added the protection of individual rights and the fa- 
cilitation of instruction. The diligent student is entitled to 
an orderly surrounding, and instruction cannot be carried on 
satisfactorily in the presence of disorder. 

The method of government most likely to secure the 
above named ends is the method to be sought and practiced. 

Speaking from the standpoint of governing forces, there are 
two kinds of government. 1. Government by forces or prin- 
ciples acting in the pupils — self-government. 2. Government 
by forces or influences brought to bear upon the pupils from 
without — "government by others." So far as it is adapted to 
the age and condition of the pupils, self-government is the 
system most likely to secure the ends desired. But in the or- 


dinaiy school it will be found necessary to rely to some extent 
on the second method, especially in the case of small children 
The most difficult age to manage is that from nine to fourteen 
when the pupil's individuality is too strong to allow him to be 
controlled by others and his judgment and self-respsct are not 
yet strong enough to enable him to control himself. Skillful 
is the teacher who can wisely apply outward resources and 
properly aid in the development of right principles and ten- 
dencies during this critical period. 

Then what are the chief governing principles and forces, 
and what are their relations as employed in the government 
of a school ? 

1. The influences acting from within, or those which are in 
the main to be relied upon in self-government, are intelli- 
gence, moral strength and interest in study. Through 
the increase of these, self-government is made practicable. 

2. Principal among the influences to be employed in the 
system which governs from without — governs by others — are 
moral force in the teacher, and brute force. 

The relations of these forces are : First, as comparing 
the influence of principles actmg from within — principles of 
self-government — with the forces acting from without, that 
they vary in inverse ratio. [See diagram No. 1, page 76.] 
As there is a greater supply of the former, there is less de- 
mand for the latter. When there is little force of character 
in the pupils, the teacher must rely largely upon the govern- 
ing forces within himself. 

Second. When the teacher finds it necessary to rely mainly 
upon influences of government wholly within himself, which 
is sometimes the case in a school of very small children, the 
relation of the two influences — moral force and brute force, 
or "stick" — is found to be such, that the more moral force 
there is the less the brute force required, and the less there is 
of moral character in the teacher the more "stick" is allow- 
able. [See diagram No. 2, page 76.] The teacher who has 
sufficient regard for right tendencies in the children, and 


works the school up to a lively interest in study, will have 
but little use for brute force. [See diagram No. 3, page 76.] 

In addition to the influences already enumerated, there is a 
class of secondary influences, which may be termed collateral 
aids to government. 

First among these is a good classification of the school. 
The scholar who is so classed and directed in his studies that 
he is encouraged to study the right thing at the right time, 
and by the right method, will, as a rule, cause but little dis- 

Second. A clean and well-arranged room has a very 
wholesome influence upon the order of the school. Cleanli- 
ness and order beget a spirit of respectfulness, while a suit- 
able arrangement of the desks, and other furniture helps to 
regulate the postures and movements of the scholars. 

Third. A wholesome industry among the pupils. Find 
a teacher who maintains a spirit of earnest work in his school, 
and you find one who is regarded as a successful governor. 
"The best order," says Calkins, "does not consist in maintain- 
ing any fixed posture, nor in absolute quietness, but rather 
in that interested attention to the lesson which so occupies 
the minds of the pupils as to leave no inclination for disor- 
der." . 

Fourth. The comfort of the pupils as secured by a 
proper temperature and ventilation of the school room. 
The experienced teacher soon learns that the exercise of 
proper precaution in looking after the temperature and ven- 
tilation of the room will always yield a rich reward in the 
order and good spirit of the school. 



Topical Analysis. 

[ 1. A means to an end. \ 1. Truthfulness. 

I I. Development of moral | _. Confidence in diu- 
tendencies. -j manity. 

[8 Self-control. 

2. The end.-j 2. Formation of good habits. 

. Protection of individual rights. 

[4. The facilitation of instruction. 

Kind -^ ^' Government from within— self-government. 
' \ 2. Government from without. 






]. As to 

fl. Influence actin< 
I from without. 

j 2. Principles acting 
from within. 

1. Moral force in teacher. 

2. Brute force. 

1. Intelligence. 

2. Moral strength. 

3. Interest in study. 


2. As to 
relation. - 

Interest in Study. 




The rules of a school, like the laws of a state, are useful so 
far as they are properly enforced. A teacher soon learns that 
it is much easier to make a good rule than to enforce it, and 
that even a good rule unwisely enforced is often productive of 
bad results. 

Then what are the rules that may be employed to ad- 
vantage in the regulation of a school? When should these 
rules be introduced, and by whom adopted? There are three 
questions that should confront the teacher at the opening of a 
term — First, what riiles or requisitions, if enforced, would 
conduce to the good order and advancement of the pupils? 
Second, which of these rules can be properly enforced under 
the circumstances ? Third, how can they be introduced so 
that their enforcement will meet with the least opposition 
and secure the best results? The answers to these questions 
will in large measure determine the rules to be introduced 
and the manner of their adoption. Experience soon con- 
vinces one of the impracticability of endeavoring to make 
rules to meet all cases likely to arise in connection with the 
school. The best results are, therefore, generally obtained 
when there are but few rules, and these more in the nature of 
requests. Say to Young America, ''You shall," and the 
response is, " I won't." Change the demand into the form 
of a solicitation, and he readily yields to the request. 

^A^hen shall the rules be introduced ? — Not necessarily 
at the opening of the term, but rather at intervals, from time 
to time, as occasion requires. 

Probably the best plan is never to introduce a rule till it 
is needed. 


By whom shall the rules be adopted? Shall it be by the 
arbitrary action of the teacher alone, or shall it be by the 
teacher and pupils acting conjointly ? 

As a natural result growing out of circumstances always 
present, the teacher or some officer in the school will de- 
termine the nature of the rule, and be the instrument of its 
introduction. And by either method it will always be a 
very easy matter to secure the adoption of good rules and 
plenty of them. Hence the question is, which of the two 
methods will be likely to secure the better enforcement of the 
rules adopted ? The experience of the writer has been in 
favor of the latter. 

By showing the pupils the necessity and reasonableness o 
the rules, and thus obtaining co-operation in their adoj^tion, a 
confidence and support is secured that will be a valuable 
auxiliary in their enforcement. A teacher receives no greater 
encouragement than to feel that his work and methods have 
the confidence and appreciation of the pupils. And nothing 
is more likely to secure this confidence than a like confidence 
and ax^preciation felt and manifested on the part of the teacher. 

Offenses. — As to the intent ot the individual, there are 
offenses which are criminal and those which are not crim- 
inal. Two pupils may do the same deed of offense, and in one 
case the act will be criminal and in the other not criminal, it 
depending wholly upon the motive of the individual. There 
are two boys whom we will call James and Freddie. James 
is sitting at his desk waiting his opportunity to dodge the eye 
of the teacher and do something to create disorder, he hardly 
knows what. He sees a boy coming from recitation, puts out 
his foot, trips him to the floor, and disturbs the school. At 
another time, Freddie has been studying very hard, has just 
finished by his OAvn efforts the last hard problem in his lesson, 
and is now elated by feelings of satisfaction that follow suc- 
cess. Just then the same little boy is passing his desk . 
Without thinking of rules, whether the teacher sees him, or 
not, he puts out his foot and throws the httle fellow on 


the floor. In both cases the deed was in substance the same, 

but in one case it was criminal while in the other it was not- 

In the former case the act was prompted by a bad motive and 

in a measure premeditated, while in the latter it was impulsive 

not springing from any bad intentions. Freddie is known as 

an orderly and industrious boy, and has respect for his teacher, 

the pupils, and the rules of the school, and while his offense 

cannot be justified, it should not be classed with that of the 

other boy. 

As to the circumstances under which they are committed 

there are also two kinds of offenses, public and private. 1. 

There is the offense which is known to both the te.icher and 

the scholars, not only so, but the scholars know that the 

teacher is aware of the offense. This is the public offense. 

2. There is the offense known to no one but the teacher and 

the one committing it, or it may also be known to the school, 

but the members of the school do not know that the teacher 

has a knowledge of it. In either case it is classed as a private 


How should these different offenses be treated? In 

dealing wiih transgressors the chief ends are the good of the 
pupil and the future order and progress of the school. To 
secure these ends the treatment must be based on the motive 
of the offender as well as upon the nature of the offense. In 
the illustration of the two boys, while from appearances the 
deeds done were the same, they w^ere prompted by very differ- 
ent motives, and it would be both unwise and unjust to dispose 
of the two cases in the same way. 

Again, a public offense requires a different treatment from 
a private offense. As a rule, a public offense requires public 
treatment, while a private offense can generally be disposed 
of more satisfactorily in a private way. Even in the case of a 
public offense it is often better to deal with the pupil privately, 
but as the offense was public it should be known that the 
case has care. In all cases let the offender be so dealt with 
as to feel that the teacher is his friend and working for his good- 


Penalties.— What penalties shall be inflicted for the offenses 
committed? What shall be their nature, and where and 
when shall they be inflicted? As in the matter of rules and 
offenses, we shall only attempt to offer some general principles 
and suggestions ui3on the subject, leaving them to be supple- 
mented by the good judgement and skill of the teacher. As 
it is impracticable to attempt to make rules to cover all cases 
of disorder likely to occur, so it is impossible to determine 
beforehand what penalties should be inflicted. It is not gen- 
erally best to state to the school wdiat the penalty for a certain 
offense will be. There is great power in mystery when a 
teacher knows how to use it. It is often well to keep the 
offender for a time in suspense as to what the nature of the 
penalty will be. In tlie State the laws are published together 
with their penalties, but on this point the government of 
the school should differ from that of the State. 

To the teacher must be delegated more discretionary power 
than is given to the courts. - To him it must be left to judge 
in each individual case of the motives of the pupil, the nature 
of the offense, the circumstances under \vhich it was commit- 
ted, and the penalty suited to the occasion. 

"Where and when a punishment should be inflicted de- 
pend upon the circumstances and nature of the offense and 
upon the disposition and temper of the parties. 

It should not, as a rule, be in the presence of the other 
pupils. It is hardly possible for a teacher to punish a pupil 
in the presence of the school without creating undue j^rejudice 
either toward himself or toward tne pupil. Though the 
punishment may be slight and in no way objectionable, if 
inflicted in the presence of the school it furnishes a good op- 
portunity for exaggerated statements of a kind to do hartn. 
If a teacher should be so unfortunate as to use the rod, he 
should never do it in the presence of the other children. 

As much as possible let the matter of the punishment be 
known only to the scholar and his te;icher, and let it never 
be inflicted when the teacher is excited or in any way in- 
fluenced by a spirit of anger or revenge. 



Topical Analysis. 

^ , 






r 1. A good classification of the school. 

2. A clean and well arranged school room. 

3. A wholesome industry among the pupils. 

5. Collateral | . ^ ^ . f Temperature of school room, 
aids to gov- \ ^' -f^^^^}^ j Ventilation of school room, 
ernment. | ^^ pupus-^ g^^^^g^ Posture, <&c. 

1. Rules. 

5. A systematic plan for calling and dismiss- 
I ing classes. 
1 6. Well conducted recitations. 



2. When made. 

3. By whom made. 

As to / Criminal, 
intent 1 Not criminal. 

fl. Kind.-{ 

Offenses. \ 

3. Penalties. 

I 2. As to circumstances. / ^P^^- 
[ I Secret. 

3. How r From a knowledge of the motive 
treated \ From the nature of the offense. 

{Should not be stated to the 
There is great power in mystery. 

Depends on the nature of the 

Depends on the disposition 
2. Where j and temper of the pupil, 
inflicted. 1 Depends on the temper of the 
teacher and his power to 
control it. 
Not, as a rule, in the presence 
[ of the school. 

o whpn ( I^epends on the nature of the 
• AT f J i individual and the circum- 
innictea. ( stances of the oflenses. 




1. "The aim of your discijDline should be to produce a self- 
governing being, not to produce a being to be governed by 
others." — H. Spencer. 

2. "We might as well expect children to be ten feet high as 
to expect them to have judgement in their tenth year." — Ros- 

3. "A teacher who furnishes that regular and constant oc- 
cupation which commands the attention of all the pupils dur- 
ing the several exercises of the day, thereby gives the best as- 
surance of ability to manage a school successfully. 

Indeed the secret of maintaining good discipline chiefly 
lies in this." — Henry Kiddle. 

4. Activity is a law of childhood. Success as a teacher de- 
pends upon the proper guiding of this activity. 

5. "The best order does not consist in maintaining any 
fixed posture, nor in absolute quietness, but rather in that 
interested attention to the lessons which so occupies the 
minds of the pupils as to leave no inclination for disorder." — 
N. A. Calkins. 

6. "The secret of successful discipline lies almost wholly 
in the ability of the teacher to give every pupil something to 
do just suited to his capacity." — Lind. 

7. Kindness is power ; love and not fear is the greater rul- 
ing principle — fable of the wind and the sun. 

8. Rewards and punishments are but necessary evils. They 
appeal to the lower feelings and may be appealed to when 
higher motives fail. 

6. Bad acts repressed are not good habits formed. 

10. The end of government is fully attained only when 


order is maintained through the development of substantial 

11. Ability to govern well implies the ability to instruct 

12. "The spirit of a gentleman depends on nothing so 
much as upon the sentiment of self-respect. It is a higher 
principle than the love of applause. It looks to the actual at- 
tainment while the latter looks to what may be thought to be. 
It makes one control his appetites, his passions and his speech. 
Without it' a person can neither win nor retain the respect of 
others ; with it he cannot fail to be respectable and respected." 




Musts and Don'ts. 

There are certain important requisites connected with the 
management of a school that may be briefly expressed under 
the two heads of Musts and Don'ts. 

First — Musts. 

1. The teacher must so instruct as to awaken an in- 
terest in study. 

There may be a successful teacher who is not a very suc- 
cessful governor of children, but one cannot be a successful 
governor who is not at the same time a skillful teacher. 

Activity is a law of childhood, and the teacher who fails 
to direct the busy energies of his pupils in the proper lioies 
of work will fail in their government. 

2. The teacher must exercise common sense. 

There are certain good ideas of propriety which are com- 
mon to most people, and anything in the general de^Dortment 
or bearing of an individual contrary to these ideas seems 
awkward or pedantic. No one has a keener perception of 
these apparent oddities than the active, wide-a-wake boys 
and girls in school, and none are more inclined to apprehend 
them in ridiculous construction. 

In district No. 5 the teacher had the habit of wearing his 
slippers in the school room and his boots or shoes on the 
play ground, &c. Now there was nothing wrong in the 
custom, as such, and it would have been entirely in place in 
a boarding school or college, but it seemed odd to the children 


of a common country school, and they would persist in 
putting water, bits of jelly, &c., into the unoccupied shoes or 
slippers, which ever it chanced to be. 

3. The teacher must respect his personal appearance 
and cultivate good habits. 

Well-combed hair, white teeth, clean nails and a healthy 
skin never appear odd or pedantic; neither do well-fitted 
clothing and an erect and natural bearing, but on the other 
hand they are pleasing and always command respect. And 
further, an individual whose habits are natural, whose body 
is clean and wisely and neatly attired, and whose bearing and 
deportment are good, is clearer in conscience and stronger in 
force of character. The clothing of the teacher should also 
bear the marks of cheerfulness and economy. 

4. The teacher must have broad views^must be un- 
selfish and tolerant. 

Few things will tend more to make a teacher unpopular 
with the pupils than to be narrow and selfish in his ideas and 
wishes. It is a mark of hmited and one-sided scholarship 
and of a contracted soul, without public spirit or love of 
children. Such a character is illy fitted either to win the 
confidence and respect of pupils or to guide them in the path 
to broad culture. 

5. The teacher must be pie cautious. 

The successful management of children depends not so 
much on being able to correct errors and apply penalties for 
disorder, as upon the ability to avoid mistakes and prevent 
acts of misconduct. The power to apprehend causes and 
foresee their probable effects as related to the conduct of 
children, is a necessary element in the individual who shall 
succeed in their control and education. 

6. A teacher must have confidence in humanity. He 
must believe in the good intentions and good tendencies of 
men. He must have faith in the infinite possibilities that lie 
hid in the child. 

The teacher who believes in the good intentions and possi- 


bilities of children will be inclined to trust them. The pupils 
seeing that they have the confidence of the teacher will have 
confidence in themselves and also in the plans and requisi- 
tions of the teacher. Without this faith in the better elements 
of humanity, teachers are apt to grow into the habit of sus- 
pecting the motives of their pupils and thus have a great deal 
of trouble over imaginary cases of disorder. Suspicion 
begets accusation and accusation destroys confidence, until a 
general spirit of distrust pervades the school. 

7. The teacher, in order to be in the highest degree suc- 
cessful in the execution of his plans and methods, must 
believe in God as the author ot system and in Christ as 
the greatest teacher, the author of the natural method and 
the great friend of children. 

8. The teacher must exercise patience and self-con- 

However efficient a teacher may be in other things if he 
fails to exercise a proper control over his own conduct he can 
hardly hope to maintain the respect and control of his pupils. 

A rash act performed or a harsh word spoken, and more is 
lost in one moment than can be regained in days or weeks of 
the most carefully guarded efforts of kindness and courtesy. 
It is necessary to be prompt and firm in the discipline of chil- 
dren ; yet promptness in attention to a matter does not always 
mean promptness in action. The wise teacher, with patience 
and self-control, will take the case of a careless girl, study her 
motives, look into the causes of her wayward conduct and 
seek their removal. He finds out her better elements and by 
the exercise of these finally brings her into a spirit of satis- 
factory obedience and under the control of her own better 
motives. Wise and patient effort has saved the girl to a life 
of usefulness ; rash and hasty action would have driven her 
out of school. 

9. A teacher must be natural. Much may be learned by 
studying the work and methods of others, but each teacher 
must have plans of his own and these plans must be based on 


natural laws that have their origin in the common make-up 
of children. 

He must carry out these plans in a way that harmonizes 
with his own peculiar nature and the nature of the surround- 
ings. It is this naturalness in plan and purpose that secures 
to the teacher the power of adaptability that enables him to 
do his work satisfactoril}^ and without embarrassment or con- 

Second — Don'ts. 

1. Don't say too much about order. Students are not 
orderly so much because they are thinking of rules and regu- 
lations as because they are interested in their studies. 

A set of regulations may secure a degree of order until the 
puj)ils become engaged in their studies (if the teacher is not 
too slow in thus directing their attentions), but the chief 
principle and end of government consists in keeping the 
scholars at their legitimate work. Let the energies of the 
teacher be put forth to arouse and direct a spirit of earnest 
work in the school, and less attention will be required for the 
enforcement of rules. 

2. Don't make threats. 

To the average American boy or girl a threat is a dare or 
challenge, and the temptation to accept it is hard to resist. 

Say to a school, "If there is any more throwing of paper 
balls I will punish the one that does it." Some boy who is 
fond of amusement, or desires to be leader among his fellows, 
at once begins his plans for throwing balls without being dis- 
covered, or, what he would perhaps enjoy more, he begins to 
work on some little short-chinned satellite to induce him to 
take the dare that he may see him bear the punishment. 

Again the making of threats is likely to place the teacher 
under embarrassing circumstances. 

A teacher having grown impatient with the whispering that 
seemed hard to check, said to her school, "The first one that 
I see whispering shall come and stand on the floor on one 

foot, holding the other m the right hand." It was not long 
before one of the most respectable young women in the school 
was seen whispering by the teacher and by the school. The 
teacher was in a dilemma and the incident is an illustration 
in point. 

3. Don't get out of order yourself, by loud talking, 
heavy walking, thumping on desks, &c. 

In school A, the teacher talks softly and in a low tone, 
moves over the room very carefully, seldom if ever pounds on 
the desk or floor or in any way makes an unpleasant noise in 
the presence of the school. The teacher's 23leasant and cour- 
teous bearing and respect for order is imjjarted to the pupils 
and the school is quiet. 

4. Don't look for acts of disobedience — look for the best. 
Teachers should cultivate pleasant and hopeful dispositions. 

They should feel pleasantly towards their pupils and be hope- 
ful of them ; first for their own good and second for the good 
of the pupils ; that they may have pleasant feelings towards 
their teachers and be hopeful of themselves. 

The way to cultivate this pleasant and hopeful relation is 
by thinking on the best elements of character. There are 
but few students who do not have many commendable 
qualities, and it is by becoming interested in these that we 
become interested in our pupils in away to be most helpful to 

5. Don't treat your pupils as though you are afraid to 
trust them. Believe that a boy can be trusted and let him 
know that you believe it and you have begun the develop- 
ment of the element of integrity in him. Treat him with 
suspicion and you begin at once to undermine his force ot 

The axiom, " confidence begets confidence," holds with pe- 
culiar force when applied to the relations between teacher and 
scholars. The live teacher who has faith in the motives and 
abilities of his pupils is an inspiration in their presejice — a 
kind of magnetic force that imparts a spirit of activity and 


hopefulness to the pupils which can only result in good feel- 
ing and honest work well done. 

6. Don't be perplexed by the noise and pranks of 

As a rule the noise of children is innocent. It is prompted 
by no bad motive. It is the result of a natural restlessness — 
the expenditure of potential energy. 

See the little bundle of enthusiasm studying with all his 
might, thumping the bench legs with his swinging feet and 
saying the lesson to himself in a regular buzz, or putting it on 
his slate with a continuous clatter, then look over the room 
and you are apt to find that the noise that you wish was not 
so loud is only the hum of busy work. You may tone it 
down but it must be carefully done lest you mar the interest 
and put some of the little folks off on a wrong tanget. When 
noise is not innocent the common motive is to annoy the 
teacher. If you allow yourself to be disturl^ed and show a 
little passion the pupil attains his end and has his fun at your 

The pranks of pupils are often innocent and should, as a 
rule, be dealt with as such. When not innocent they are gotten 
up to have some sport at another's expense and the teacher is 
apt to be the victim of the joke. 

An unwise indulgence ol the scholars in their noise and 
praiiks could but work the ruin of the school, but to be harsh 
and hasty in the treatment of these offences would be to apply ' 
a remedy as bad as the disease. It is often very difficult to 
say just how a prank should be dealt with — but certainly not 
by becoming annoyed and showing anger. 

In a school where there was a large number of students at- 
tending lectures the boys had a habit of adjusting the lecture 
stand (the top of which was regulated by the pressure of a 
screw on an upright support) so that when leaned upon the 
top would slide down to the floor. When Prof. A. was lec- 
turing and the top would slide down the Professor would be- 
come very much disturbed and scold at the class with harsh 


and abusive words, and the boys enjoyed their fun and 
thought how they would have the scene repeated on another 

One day when Prof. B. was lecturing the top slid down as 
in the case of Prof. A. The Professor with marks of pleas- 
antry on his face reached down and readjusted the stand 
while with a twinkle in his soft blue eyes he looked us over. 
The boys cheered the professor and hissed the boys that 
played the prank. 

7. Don't scold. 

Scolding is usually resorted to as a penalty for offences 
committed — a sort of rod of correction — and it is about as 
effectual in its results as the administration of the real woody 
fiber. A moderate and wise administration of scolding, like 
"a moderate and wise use of the rod," might sometimes be 
allowable when all other resources of discipline are exhaust- 
ed, but the difficulty is that the use of scolding or of the rod 
is seldom either moderate or wise. Scolding is Boreas blowing 
against the traveler's cloak. The warm sunshine of kindness 
and love is the teacher's most effectual instrument for cor- 
rection and control. 

8. Don't speak disparagingly of the work of another 

It will not make your Avork any better. It will do good to 
no one. It will probably do harm to many. It will certainly 
weaken your own character and lessen your influence for 
good. All teachers have their friends who believe in them 
and their work. If there is any class of workers that should 
be closely bound together by the ties of common interest and 
common sympathy it is the teachers of the public schools. 
They are engaged in a common work and against a common 
foe. Their labors are arduous and their responsibilities great. 
Each one has enough to contend with without thrusting his 
lance into the ranks of his comrades. Do your own work 
well and "lend a hand." 

9. Don't antagonize the opinions of your patrons. 


In almost every district there are those who have their 
notions in regard to how the school should be managed. 
These are generally persons of influence in the community 
and you will need their support. Your opinions on school 
work may be very superior to theirs, yet there are but few 
teachers who may not receive some profitable ideas from their 
patrons, and it works better to receive any voluntary sugges- 
tions that they may make, with courtesy and due considera- 
tion. By this means you win their confidence and they will 
come to feel a kind of partnership in your work and be the" 
more likely to give you their support. Any modification of 
your plans that due courtesy to their suggestions would require 
will not overbalance the united support of your leading 

10. Don't deal with a disobedient pupil when angry. 
The chief objects in dealing witli pupils are first, that you 

may help them to be better, and second, that you may 
Win their confidence in order that you may be more 
helpful to them. Neither of these objects can be very well 
accomplished under the influence of an angry passion. An- 
ger begets anger, and the fruits of anger are strifes and dis- 
sensions. Anger is a species of slavery that overcomes manly 
independence and is contrary to deliberate and wise action. 

11. Don't speak of the faults of your pupils. 
There is hardly a char..cter without its weak points. There 

is no life without mistakes, and no individual without pecu- 
liarities. The person who chooses to feed on the weaknesses 
and failures of others can always find a ready supply ; but 
this food is in the worst way unwholesome and can only 
produce littleness of disposition and leanness of soul. 

Our inclination to speak of the faults of our pupils may 
spring from different sources. It may come from the force of 
a pernicious habit of talking about people generally, or it may 
come from a consciousness that we have failed in our efforts 
to secure the confidence of the pupils and awaken an interest ' 
in study — probably from both these sources. 


The habit of talking of the fkults of pupils can certainl}' 
do no good while it will do harm in a number of ways. First, 
it will tend to destroy our attachment for the children, which 
is so very essential to the general good feeling of a school. 
Second, it will diminish our confidence in their integrity and 
abilities and hence our interest in them, so that we will be 
less inclined to trust them and feel less encouragement to 
work for them. Third, it will tend to destroy our patience 
with the pupils and make us less courteous and considerate 
in our treatment of them. 

The more we think of their faults the more we are apt to 
see their mistakes and the less we are likely to think of our 
oivn faults and see our oum mistakes. 

Again, the pupils are always anxious to learn what their 
teachers think and say of them. Fortunate it is for the 
children and fortunate for the teacher if the words that are 
spoken concerning the pupils be of a character to encourage 
them. The habit of speaking of the good qualities of indi- 
viduals always reaps its sure reward in rich returns. 



Musts and Don'ts. 


























r 1- 

!^ ^ 

















1— 1 












Teacher must so instruct as to awaken an interest. 

Teacher must exercise common sense. 

Teacher must respect his personal appearance and 

cultivate good habits. 
Teacher must have broad views — must be unselfish 

and tolerant. 
Teacher must be precautious. 
Teacher must have confidence in humanity. 
Teacher must have faith in God. 
Teacher must govern himself. 
Teacher must be natural. 
Teacher must exercise patience. 

Don't say too much about order. 

Don't make threats. 

Don't get out of order f By loud talking, heavy 

yourself \ walking, &c. 

Don't look for acts of disobedience— look for the 

Don't treat your pupils as though you are afraid to 

trust them. 
Don't be perplexed by the noise and pranks of 

Don't scold. 

Don't speak disparagingly of the work of another 
, Don't antagonise the opinions of the patrons. 
. Don't deal with disorderly pupils when angry. 
. Don't speak of the faults of your pupils. 



The importance of being able to read well can hardly be 
over-estimated. Reading is a key to the source and the use 
of knowledge ; yet many pupils and even teachers who seem 
to be reasonably well advanced in other branches, are sadly 
deficient in reading. Such a deficiency shows either a lack 
of attention to the subject of reading, or a failure in the 
methods of teaching it — probably both. Then what is the 
prime end of reading ? What is its place in the work of cul- 
ture, an4 what are the means and methods by which a greater 
interest may be awakened in this department of culture and 
our schools be enabled to turn out better readers? The fol- 
lowing comprehends in the main, the prime end of reading 
and may be counted as standard marks of a good reader : 

1. Ability to gather the ideas or thoughts express- 
ed by the writer. 

The first law of good reading is comprehension. The pupil 
must be trained into the habit of getting the thought of the 
writer. He must comprehend t>.e selection he is reading, 
that he may read from his thoughts and not simply 
pronounce words from a book. The artificial and unna- 
tural style in which many young people read is largely due 
to the fact that they do not have a clear conception of the 
ideas and sentiments expressed by the writer. 

First: The children should understand the meaning of the 
words ; not simply be able to give the definitions as found in 
a dictionary, but be able to apprehend their meaning in the 
sentences read. 

Second: They should understand the relations of these words 
so far as is necessary to apprehend the thoughts of the writer. 

2. The ability to convey thought to the minds of 


Vocal reading, is having something in the mind and 
telling it. The mere pronunciation of words in a sentence 
is not reading in the true sense of the word. Not only is 
it necessary for the reader to have a clear comprehension 
of the thoughts of the writer, but he must be able to 
convey these thoughts in definite form to the minds of others. 
The pronunciation must be correct, the enunciation clear, 
and the expression natural. Naturalness in posture and 
expression are necessary marks of a good reader. Natural 
reading is very nearly akin to natural talking. The little 
girl answered wisely who, when asked "What is reading?" 
replied "It is talking out of a book." In talking, the thoughts 
precede the expression ; so it should be in reading. Natural 
talking has also the element of appreciation ; hence, to be a 
natural reader there must be an appreciation of the thoughts 
expressed. The subject-matter for reading classes should be 
within the comprehension of the pupils and of good and 
proper sentiment. 

3. Culture in Language. 

Language is the medium for transmitting thought. Read- 
ing is the use of this medium. It is the gathering of thought 
from language and the expression of thought through the 
medium of language. Reading enlarges one vocabulary's of 
words and give? a better understanding of the meaning and 
use of terms. It is very largely by the use of good language 
that the student's language is improved. In addition to the 
regular reading lessons the pupils should be required to 
memorize choice selections in literature and recite them in 
the presence of the class. The language thus receives culture 
in the elegant expression of the best thought. 

4. The cultivation of a good literary taste. Nothing 
will more determine what shall be the literary taste of an in- 
dividual than the kind of thoughts indulged in — than the 
food which the mind feeds on. The characteristics of a per- 
son may be known by the nature of his associates; his literary 
preferences by the books he reads. 


By a careful selection of reading material and a proper 
method of instruction in reading much may be done to 
awaken an interest in good literature. 

In teaching reading two special ends of the recitation 
are the culture of the voice and the culture of the eye. 

To be an accurate reader, is to be able to control the voice in 
ready and natural enunciation. To be a fluent reader the eye 
must be trained in keen and ready perception. 

The work of the recitation in reading should consist 
mainly in drill exercises. 

a. A general drill on the elementary sounds and the pro- 
nunciation of words. Distinct articulation, clear enunciation 
and correct pronunciation form the basis of good reading and 
can be acquired only by continued careful drill. 

h. A short discussion of the subject of the lesson that the 
class may have some apprehension of the thoughts and senti- 
ments of the author. 

c. The reading exercises, which should be conducted with 
a view to getting the greatest amount of work out of each 
member of the class. In this exercise the chief object of 
the reader should be to give the thoughts of the author 
in clear and natural expression. This should be the test 
standard of good reading. It is a good method to have 
the entire class read a paragraph, (or what is often better a 
sentence) until the thoughts are well understood, and the most 
difficult words readily pronounced, then to have the different 
members read it singly. In all cases the teacher will be ex- 
pected to furnish the model. 

d- Spelling and examination of work done out of class. 
Spelling and reading are closely related and should be taught 
conjointly. In classes somewhat advanced, the plan works 
well of first pronouncing a number of words from the reading 
lesson to be spelled on slips of paper by all members of the 
class. The misspelled words are marked to be taken as a les- 
son to be studied. Thus the time of study is given to words 
the pupils are likely to misspell. 


t. The assigning of a new lesson, a part of which the 
teacher should generally read, calling attention to some of 
the more difficult words and also to some of the leading 

Pupils should study their reading lesson as other lessons, 
yet their knowledge of the meaning of words and their com- 
prehension and appreciation of the thoughts contained in the 
lesson will depend very much on the work of the recita- 

Let the teacher read the sentences to the class and call at- 
tention to the more difficult words, and then have the pupils 
pronounce these words and use them in sentences of their own. 

Let him also speak of the subject-matter of the lesson, and 
ask the pupils what the author says in a certain paragraph ; 
then the pupils should give the thoughts in their own lan- 
guage and then in the words of the author. In classes where 
pupils are thus trained till the words are quickly recognized 
and understood, and the thoughts of the writer readily gather- 
ed, comprehended and appreciated, natural reading becomes 
as easy as natural talking. 



Topical Analysis. 



f 1. Ability to gather the ideas expressed by the writer. 
Prime ! 2. Ability to convey these ideas to the minds of others, 
end. 1 3. Culture in language. 

4. Cultivation of a literary taste. 

2. Special end in recitation. \ o' 

Culture of the voice. 
Culture of the eye. 

3. Qualities of 
good reading. 

f 1. Correct pronunciation of words. 
2. Firmness and distinct articulation in the 
enunciation of words. 
I 3. Natural emphasis. 
L4. Natural expression. 

Work in 

1. A general drill on sounds and enunciations. 

2. A short discussion of the subject of the lesson. 

3. Reading — collectively and individually. 

4. Spelling and examination of work done out of 

5. Assigning lesson — read lesson alone or with 
t class. 

All reading should be natural. 

Selections read should not be beyond the pupils' 
I comprehension. 
I 3. Selections read should be good literature and 
I should contain pure and proper sentiments. 
5. Remarks. -j 4. Pupil^should be required to memorize choice 

selections for drill exercises. 

5, Natural reading is much like natural talking. 

6. In first, second and third readers all, or a por- 
tion, of each lesson should be printed on paper 
or slate, or what is better, written in script. 



Tonics — Subtonics — A tonics. 

By the law of association the sounds of the letters may be 
learned more readily when arranged in sentences.* Below is 
given a classified list of the principal elementary sounds, with 
an arranoement of sentences, which may suggest matter and 
method for class drill. 


A tonic is an unobstructed vocal tone, which is capable of 
indefinite prolongation. 

a as in 


e as in see 

i as in sit 

a " 


e " her 

u " up 

a " 


e " yet 

a " 


, ^ f u as in use 

a " 


o as in roll 

^^Jou " our 

"^Days that 

are all fair. 

o " on 
00 " good 

p2 j i " fine 
^ 1 oi " oil 

00 moon 


A subtonic has vocality ; but it is interrupted in its pas- 
sage and is not capable of prolongation. 

b as in boys y as in yon 

d " do z 

V " vainly z 

g " go th 

1 " like w 

ni " men ng 

n '' not 

r " right 







An atonic is literally a sound without tone — an expulsion 

of whispered breath. 

f as in fine j as in joyfully 

p " people sh " she 

t " talk s " sees 

k " kindly wh " while 

qu " quietlv 

h '' he ' 

th " thinks 




Speech, or the expression of thought by means of elemen- 
tary sounds, is the one distinctive characteristic of man. 
Every word is the record of some fact or idea and is at the 
same time the means by which such a fact or idea may be 
conveyed from one mind to another. 

First ideas were formed in the mind, then words were in- 
vented to represent these ideas. Ideas were grouped into the 
form and relationship of thoughts, then sentences were formed 
for the expression of these thoughts. Thus, words and sen- 
tences become the receptacles of ideas and thoughts and are 
therefore a sort of treasure-house for the intellectual resources 
of the ages. 

The history of the introduction of words and the develop- 
ment of sentences is therefore the history of thought and, in a 
sense, a history of the conquests of civilization. To be ac- 
quainted with words in their full meaning and relations is 
to know much about things and the thoughts they represent. 
They who increase their vocabularies enlarge the scope of 
their mental visions. 

Not only does language serve as a medium for the trans- 
mission of thought but it is also an instrument of thought. 
Without the use of words accurate and extensive thought is 
well nigh impossible. That the mind may retain, compare 
and generalize ideas it is necessary that these ideas be repre- 
sented by some visible word or sign. The relation is so close 
between concepts and terms and between thoughts and their 
sentences that definite thinkers are apt to express themselves 


in clear and accurate language, and that those who cultivate 
precise and definite forms of expression generally have a 
clear and distinct comprehension of subjects. 

Because of this very close relation between language and 
thought, between knowledge and the treasure-house of knowl- 
edge, language has long held an important place in the 
course of study. 

Notwithstandhig the importance generally attached to lan- 
guage study, yet as regards the means and methods to be em- 
ployed in teaching language, educators have perhaps less unity 
of opinion than in the other branches. 

Then what should be the prime end in teaching language. 
What are the parts of language that should be taught to pu- 
pils in the primary and intermediate grades and what are 
some of the j^rinciples that shall guide us in our method for 
teaching language ? 

The object of language study should be to accomplish the 
following results : 

1. The ability to express thought clearly, distinctly 
and readily. 

To set forth ideas or thoughts with their definite character- 
istic marks so that they may be clearly apprehended by 
others, requires a full understanding of the meaning of words, 
a nice sense of discrimination or precision that will select the 
right word, a knowledge of the true relation of words in the 
formation of sentences and the power of correct pronuncia- 

Distinctness of expression, or the setting forth of ideas in 
a clear discrimination of their parts or attributes requires a se- 
lected vocabulary and a clear apprehension of the full mean- 
ing of words, and to express thought readily there must be 
a habit of associating with ideas and thoughts their proper 
words and forms of expression — a habit that can only be had 
by careful training. 

2. Closely related to the use of language in the transmis- 
sion of ideas and thoughts is the ability to apprehend ex- 


pressed thought, whether heard in oral speech or seen on 
the written or printed page. 

To readily gather in the thoughts expressed by others there 
must be, on the part of the recipient, not only a knowledge of 
the meaning and use of words but there must be a keen per- 
ception for the recognition of terms, and powers of ready anal- 
ysis to classify the different parts of sentences and see the 
relations and uses of their clauses, phrases and words. 

A normal discipline of the intellect in receiving and 
expressing thought should be regarded as most important 
among the objects to be attained by instruction aad drill in 

3. A taste for good literature. This subject has been 
referred to under the head of reading which is only a depart- 
ment of language study. 

The likes and dislikes of the different kinds of literature are 
early formed. A child has no sooner begun to think and 
speak than it begins to show a tendency to copy after certain 
peculiar phases of expression and manifest a preference for 
certain kinds and qualities of thought. It belongs to the de- 
partment of language study to rightly direct these tendencies 
and properly cultivate these preferences. 

4. A knowledge of language, in its structure, its nature 
and its history. In addition to the power of using language 
in the reception and expression of thought, the student of 
language goes further and seeks to know it in its nature and 
history, and in its relations to other departments of knowl- 

Then what shall be the means and what the methods by 
which we can best reach the ends of language study. 

There are really but two methods of teaching language : 
the imitative method and the scientific method. 

Language may be studied as an instrument to be used or as 
a subject to be understood. It may be studied as an art or a 

The imitative method deals with language as an art. It 


seeks to know the language in its best usage and to cultivate 
the power and the habit of accurate and elegant expression. 

The scientific method regards language more as a subject 
for investigation. Its object is to study the structure of sen- 
tences, learn the relations of words, phrases and clauses, and 
discover the principles or laws which govern their use^. 

In its apphcation, the imitative method should precede 
the scientific method. It is th emethod which is adapted to 
primary and intermediate instruction. It is mother nature's 
own method for teaching language. 

Oral instruction in its varied apphcations is the means 
chiefly to be employed in the imitative method, yet there are 
some text books on language study that can be used to good 
advantage. In the use of text books there is always more or 
less a tendency on the part of the pupils (and sometimes on 
the part of the teacher) simply to study the book instead of 
the subject of which the book is only a treatise. In language 
study this tendency is probably greater than in any other 
branch of learning. Oral instruction has an influence to 
direct the minds of the students definitely to the subject. It 
also admits of a greater variety of exercises than is given in 
the text books. 

Among the first exercises in the language lessons the child 
may be required to copy sentences on paper or slate. It is 
well to vary the work from slate to paper or the blackboard. 

The work should be neatly and accurately done— careful 
attention being paid to the use of capitals, punctuation and 
spelling. The pupils should also memorize the sentences, so 
that they can copy them from memory. Closely connected 
with and sometimes preceding the exercise in copying, is 
that of making sentences or the expression of thought in 
sentences. By some object being introduced before a class, 
thought is awakened. By a free conversational discussion of 
the object the pupils may be led to express these thoughts in 
sentences — to say something about the object. On slates or 
tablets with which the class is provided the pupils may 


write down these thoughts, or they ma}^ be correctly and 
neatly written on a clean blackboard, which should always be 
in view of the class. 

In the place of a real object, pictures calculated to awaken 
thought in children may be introduced and discussed in a 
free conversational manner, which will lead the pupils to a 
natural expression of their thoughts. A care should be ex- 
ercised that the expression be natural, elegant and accurate, 
and that the sentences be well written, with due attention 
given to capitals, punctuation and spelling. As an exercise 
providing -work for pupils out of class let them write a certain 
number of sentences expressing their further thoughts sug- 
gested by the object or the picture; or it may often be better 
to furnish the class with a new object or picture. Such exer- 
cises never fail to stimulate thought, while they continually 
put into practice the knowledge and principles daily ac- 

As the pupils become more advanced the work of sentence 
building will give place to essay writing, which, by 
requiring less time will allow the pupils to give their attention 
more to the classification and relation of words. 

Essay writing is an important element in the work of lan- 
guage study and should have special attention through the 
entire course. It is simply an advanced step in sentence 
building — the awakening of thought through the examina- 
tion of a subject and the cultivation of the powers of expres- 
sion through the formation of sentences. The subject for 
essays should be selected with great care by the teacher, and 
given to the class something after the manner of presenting 
an object in the work of sentence forming. At least it should 
be sufficiently discussed to awaken an interest among the 
pupils and give them some leading thoughts or suggestions 
that will' direct them into the proper lines of investigation 
and lead them to available sources of information. The less 
the advancement of the pupil the more necessary the discus- 
sion and suggestions from the teacher. 


Pupils do not like to write essays for the reason, they do 
not know how. Awaken an interest in the subject and show 
them by a simple topical analysis how it may be treated, and 
by definite references where they can obtain information, 
and you will make essay writing a pleasant exercise and 
give encouragement to a most valuable means for stimlating 
original thought and cultivating accurate and fluent lan- 

A third class of exercises is that of having the children 
memorize and recite selections from choice literature. 
When skilfully managed this may be made one of the most 
profitable drill exercises employed by the imitative method. 
It enlarges the pupils vocabulary of well chosen words, and 
cultivates habits of polished expression. Such exercises will 
also have an influence to awaken an interest in good literature. 

In place of requiring pupils to commit to memory and recite 
the selections it is a good plan to vary the exercises by having 
them read a number of sentences or paragraphs and then 
express the thoughts of the author in their own language. 
either orally or in writing— in writing is preferable. This 
exercise, as well as that of memorizing and reciting, can be 
adjusted to all grades of language study, but it is especially 
suited to primary and intermediate work. At this stage the 
pupils are generally more subject to the laws of association. 
They learn more by observation and contact and not so much 
by thoughtful reasoning. They learn language more by the 
use of language than by an analytical study of the structure of 

By the time the higher grade work is taken up students will 
generally have reached the age at which the reasoning facul- 
ties are better developed and there is more of an inclination 
to analize, compare and discover the relations of things. At 
this period language should be studied more as a science. 

Technical Grammar and philology should now take an 
important place among the studies of this department. 

It is hardly advisable to give much space to the subject of 


teaching technical grammar except it be to state a few general 
principles, by the observance of which the author has been 
much aided. 

1. The study of language as a science is based on the clasi- 
fication and definition of words. 

2. The unit of grammatical study is the sentence. 

3. Words are classified with reference to their uses in the 

4. In the English sentence the words, phases and clauses 
represent certain ideas or thoughts and their constructions are 
determined by the relations of the ideas or thoughts repre- 

5. The natural method ot grammatical study is to begin 
with the most simple sentence and proceed by definite steps 
to develop and study the sentence in its various forms and 
complexities. One step at a time, and that well understood, 
is proceeding from the known to the unknown. 



Topical Analysis. 

f r Language is a medium for transmitting thought, 

1. Defined. < the means by which we have access to accumu- 
(. lated knowledge. 

f 1. Ability to express thought clearly, distinctly, and 

readilv / ^^ ^'^^^®- 
readily. | gy writing. 

. Ability to gather thought from oral expression or 
Prime J from the printed or written page. 

End. " 8. A taste for good literature. 

4. A formal discipline of the intellect in receiving 
and expressing thought. 

5. A knowledge of f Its history, 
language. \ Its nature and structure. 

Methods. | ^^ 


-Grammar proper. 

The first four 
of above ends 
may be at- 

f 1. By copying sentences on slate or paper. 
By expressing thought f Written, 
in sentences. \ Spoken. 

—Language Lessons. 
By sentence building when leading words 
are given or when thoughts are suggested 
■< by objects or pictures. 

By memorizing and speaking choice se- 
lections in literature. 
By reading choice literature and express- 
ing the thoughts of the writer in one's 
own language. 
[ 6. By writing essays, &c. 

b. A knowledge of a language may be obtained by a systematic 
study of its words and structure, — grammar proper and the 
history of language. 




1. Language may be studied either as an instrument to be 
used or a subject-matter to be investigated and understood. 
It may be studied as an art or a science. 

2. It is the province of language lessons to teach language 
simply as an art — to teach pupils the correct use of language 
both in speaking and writing. 

3. Grammar proper is the study of a language as a science. 
In studying language as a science it is the purpose to discover 
the laws that regulate its use. 

4. Language lessons should precede formal grammar. 

5. Special attention should be given to written language. 

6. If children can write a language correctly they will be 
apt to speak it correctly. 

7. The correction of current errors in speech should have 
daily attention. 

8. To be able to use language well is more desirable than a 
knowledge of its structure. 

9. A definition enumerates the uses a word must have in a 
sentence in order that it belong to a certain class. 

10. The idea of a class should precede its definition. 

11. Words should be first classed simply as nouns, verbs 
adjectives, &c., and afterwards distributed under their sub- 

12. In the study and analysis of the English sentence, pro- 
ceed upon the theory that every word, phrase and clause has 
a use or uses, and that their relations and constructions are 
based on their uses. 

13. Letter writing, or essay writing should accompany the 
study of language. 

14. They who would understand a language must know its 




Definition, Tre Value of Historical Study, Relations 
OF History to Geography. 

1. Definition. The term history does not mean simply 
an accumulation of facts and dates arranged in a chronologi- 
cal order. Every event in history is the effect of a cause 
or of causes. King John of England signed the Magna 
Charta. This was an event; the growing power of the united 
barons being the cause. The Civil War in our country was 
an event ; slavery was a cause. The rapid settlement of Cali- 
fornia was an event ; the gold found in her sands was a cause. 

There are certain influences or principles to which the 
motives, impulses, and doings of man may be traced. Out of 
the period of barbarism that followed the overthrow of the 
Roman Empire in the West sprang the feudal system. An 
explanation of this is found in the spirit of individuahsm so 
marked in the invading Teuton, who settled in Southwestern 
Europe. The religious persecutions of Massachusetts were 
but a natural product of the idea of the connection between 
Church and State brought over by the founders of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay Colony. The colonists of Pennsylvania lived 
in friendly relations with the savage Indians, a result of the 
principles of peace taught by the founder of the Quaker 

The study of history, then implies the study of these events 
and these causes in their relations to one another and to these 


influences and principles as first or indirect causes. History 
thus defined may justly claim a prominent place in the cur- 
riculum of study. 

2. The value of historical study. While history has 
its value with other branches of study as a means of general 
culture, it also has specific value of a practical character. 

a. It has value as a collateral aid to the study of other 
subjects. The understanding of a subject is very much im- 
proved by a knowledge of its history (and there are few sub- 
jects of study but have more or less of a history). 

By the study of English grammar we may learn much 
about the correct use and meaning of our language; but to 
thoroughly understand its nature, etymology, and structure 
one must know its history. Give the student of natural 
philosophy access to a steam-engine; let him examine it in 
whole and by paHs; and let him watch and study its move- 
ments. In this way he may obtain a general idea of its parts 
and structure. Now let him study the history of the discov- 
eries and inventions by which part after part was added to 
Newcomen's rude contrivance, making the complete engine 
of to- day, and his» comprehension and appreciation of it are 
very much improved. In studying a system of national gov- 
ernment, the student finds material aid in the history of the 
different elements and principles as the}^ came together and 
adjusted themselves into a system of organic law. Through 
the study of the sacred text (which is largely historical) one 
may obtain a fair knowledge of the principles of Christianity ; 
but if he would know the civilizing influence of these vital 
principles upon mm in his social and national institutions, 
he must study the history of civilization in those nations 
where Christianity has been accepted. Thus it is with the 
sciences of astronomy, chemistry, sociology, and most sub- 
jects of study. They are better understood when their his- 
tory is known. 

b. History furnishes a great store of valuable experi- 
ence. It is said that each generation starts off of the shoulders 


of the one that precedes it. This is no less true in point of 
experience than in other respects. The counsels of the aged 
are held in regard because ot the experience upon which they 
are based. To the careful student history brings in its coun- 
sels the accumulated experiences of ages. Take away this 
experience (or neglect to have a knowledge of it) and society 
is adrift upon. a sea without a chart. Man would thus be left 
mainly to the momentary impressions made upon him by ex- 
ternal objects — left to repeat the mistakes of the past, and be 
controlled by wrong notions of society and untried systems 
of government. All wise action is more or less influenced by 
the lessons of history. 

c. The study of history has an influence upon character. 
One has said, "To find moral truth we must study man in 
action." Study the history of a nation, mark its different 
stages of civilization, note the different agencies in their in- 
fluences upon the ideas and customs of society and institu- 
tions of government, and it is a very unthinking student who 
will not gather some valuable lessons and have a better ap- 
preciation of the moral forces as agencies of Ireedom and 
humanity. Study the comparative stabilities of nations ex- 
isting under different states of morals, ideas of religion, and 
standards of intelligence. Compare France, at the execution 
of Louis XVI, with England at the beheading of Charles I, 
and one cannot fail to see the force of sound moral discipline, 
and the influence of intelligent notions of Christianity, coupled 
with a spirit of obedience to law. 

The department of history most fruitful in its influences 
upon character is biography. Here the student is brought 
more into the associaton of the individuals, where he may 
know something of the impulses and motives of the actor, and 
study to better advantage the elements of true character. 
Studying the lives of the good and great is like living among 
them. Study the life of George Fox, John Wesley, or John 
Knox, and learn what were their early tendencies, what the 
nature of their education and early associations, the kind and 


extent of their labors, the opposition with which they had to 
contend and their success in overcoming it. Learn also 
their leading motives, characteristics, and the secret of their 
power ; and the student will not only acquire better notions of 
the elements of strength and success, but he will learn to value 
the character of the man and have desires to imitate it. Let 
a boy read the history of Peter the Great, and to him labor 
becomes more honorable ; the life of John Howard, and the 
work done for the unfortunate becomes more noble ; the politi- 
cal career of William of Orange, Charles Sumner or Richard 
Cobden, and "right becomes might ; " the mercantile life of 
A. T. Stewart, and " honesty is the best policy; " the lives of 
the reformers, and Christianity becomes to him the basis of 
true courage. 

d. Prevision. In so far as history is a science we may 
claim for it the common scientific test — 2:>re vision. Other 
sciences may have less of the element of uncertainty than 
history, yet there are historical causes, and historical events 
the results of these causes. Looking into the relations of 
these causes and effects, the student discovers certain general, 
though fixed, principles which bear a very close relation to 
them. Not only so, but he may learn the nature and tenden- 
cies of these principles. Aristocracy and democracy are two 
principles adverse in their natures. Who can trace the origin 
and growth of the English House of Commons and not fore- 
see the ultimate triumph of the people's rule ? The historical 
student of the seventeenth century read lessons prophetic, 
as he saw the principles of freedom shaping the sentiments 
of the American colonists. It was a knowledge of these les- 
sons that gave hope and courage to the colonists as they 
struggled with disease, unprincipled agents, .savage Indians, 
and finally with the armed forces of Great Britain. It was- 
this prevision obtained through a knowledge of history, to- 
gether with a love for freedom, that nerved the arm of Adams, 
Washington, and Jefferson. It was these that emboldened 


Patrick Henry to say, " We are not weak." — " There is a just 
God that rules over the destinies of nations." 

3. What are the relations of history and geography, 

and to what extent should these relations be regarded in 
deciding both upon the subject-matter of history to be taught 
and the method of teaching? 

As the mental and moral powers are very largely influenced 
by the physical powers, so the characteristics and industries 
of a people are determined in a large degree by the physical 
features of the country in which they live. Let us study a good 
physical map of the United States, noticing the mountains, 
plains, lakes, rivers, soil, and the mineral and lumber re- 
sources; also noticing the coast-line and variety of climate. 
Now we may understand why American slavery was pe- 
culiarly a Southern institution, why New England was a 
manufacturing country, why our chief railroad lines run east 
and west instead of north and south; why New York, Chicago, 
St. Louis, and New Orleans are great commercial centres. 
Long before the days of Washington and Jefferson the history 
of the nation was in part written in the physical features of 
the continent. The relations of geography and history are 
such that they should be taught in a certain measure 
conjointly — especially is this of advantage in the primary 
lessons. An acquaintance with the geography of a place 
makes the history of the events more interesting and more 
easily retained in the mind of the student. Also a knowledge 
of the history of a section of country adds interest to the 
study of its geography. 




Since the answer to this question must be determined in a 
.measure by the opportunities and special needs of the pupils, 
what is said here wdll be said mainly with reference to the 
subject-matter which belonss to the lower-grade work. 

1. The First Lessons in History. These first lessons 
in history should consist of such narratives of travel, dis- 
coveries, and exploration as will be calculated to train the 
imagination and develop a historical taste, and at the same 
time give the pupils a general knowledge of some leading 
characters and events. These narratives need not necessarily 
be taken up in chronological order. Their relations and 
order of connection will be considered further on in the 
study. Yet it is desirable that they constitute parts of the 
first connected history likely to be studied by the class. 

Let us suppose a class of pupils to be familiar with the history 
of Columbus in his first voyage to the New World, De Soto in 
his explorations through some of the Southern States, John 
Smith in his exploits with the Indians and in his explorations 
along the shores of the Chesapeake, the Pilgrim Fathers in 
their first years at Plymouth Rock, Roger Williams in the 
country of the Narragansetts, William Penn making his treaty 
with the Indians, the early lives of Washington and Franklin, 
with other like interesting subjects. Here we have a basis for 
the more systematic sturl}^ of the United States historv. 

2. The Outline History of the United States in 
connection with Physical Geography. It should be the 
object at this stage of the course to acquire a knowledge of the 


leading historical events in their connected order, in their 
relations to one another, and in their relations to the physical 
features of the country. 

3. Leading Characters and Events of the World's His- 
tory, accompanied with some instruction in Geography. 
An objection offered to the study of general history is, that 
pupils are required to pass over subjects in such rapid succes- 
sion that their ideas of them must necessarily be very limited 
and indefinite. The remedy here suggested is that fewer 
subjects be studied — selecting only such as have a definite 
influence upon civiliza.tion and hence a definite place in 
organic history. By this method the students acquire reliable 
knowledge of the subjects studied and an increased interest in 
historical studies, while their general ideas of the thread of 
events will be quite as definite as that obtained by the ordinary 

4. The History of the United States, supplement- 
ed With such parts of General History as have special 
connection with United States History. The pupils are 
now prepared for a systematic and philosophical study of 
our colonial and governmental history. The history of the 
United States, and especially the colonial history, is so related 
to the history of some of the other nations, that a philoso- 
phical studj^ of it requires a knowledge of some subjects of 
general history. These subjects may havebeen studied in the 
course in the World's history, yet it will generally be found 
necessary to review them in connection with a thorough 
study of the United States history. 

To make an intelligent comparison between the Plymouth 
and Jamestown colonies, the student must have a knowledge 
of the English Church and understand its attitude tow^ard the 
Separatists, of which the Pilgrim fathers were a branch. 

To appreciate the struggles of the early settlers of the Caro- 
linas in their opposition to the oppressive rule of unprincipled 
governors and agents appointed over them, one should be 
acquainted with the notions and characteristics of the Scotch 


Presbyterians, the French Huguenots, the Baptists, and the 
Quakers, together with the political followers of Oliver Crom- 
well, who came to this territory that they might have homes 
in a free land. To understand the spirit of opposition that 
existed between Virginia and New England it is necessary to 
know something of the democratic and artistocratic parties as 
seen in the history of England. The political relations of 
these two parties to the non-partisan and peace-loving Quakers 
in England, made the Quaker Commonwealth in America a 
favorable territory upon which the extending settlements of 
the two adverse parties might meet, and the staid city of 
Philadelphia a possible place where the ideas and sentiments 
of the thirteen colonies might be brought together and ad- 
justed into a national constitution. 

The next subject of history which the American student 
can take up to the best advantage is the history of England. 
Whatever be the history studied, let the attention be given to 
such parts of it as have a philosophical connection wi^h other 
parts of history. 



Teaching History. 

The teacher must be natural in his methods, and each suc- 
cessful teacher is likely to have a method more or less peculiar 
to himself. Yet teaching is a science as well as an art, and 
all methods must be based upon certain general principles. 
1. The Method of Teaching History should be Topical. 

Why should it be topical? What are some of the advanta- 
ges offered by the topical method? 

(a.) The topical method is the natural method. It is 
the method most in harmony with the faculties and tenden- 
cies of the human mind. It takes up leading events as cen- 
tres of thought and studies them as they were studied at the 
time of their occurrence — studies them as living scenes. Du- 
ring the Commonwealth of Great Britain Oliver Cromwell 
was the central figure of thought and discussion. Almost 
every institution and enterprise in England felt his influence. 
The topical method would study the Commonwealth through 
Cromwell as the central topic, taking up, as minor and rela- 
tive topics, characters, institutions and events likely to have 
been influenced by his rule. Throughout the history of the 
United States certain leading characters and events have 
formed the central figures of thought and discussion for our 
people. The plan of the topical method is to reproduce 
these scenes in their natural order. 

(6.) It makes prominent the most important events 
and characters of history. By simply studying and re- 
citing the lessons given in our text-books, the ideas obtained 


by the pupils are likely to be very indefinite. Their histori- 
cal knowledge is but little more than a conglomeration of 
dates, personages and events, with very little ideas of classes 
or relations. ' 

(c.) By the topical method the efforts of the students 
are more concentrated upon the subject instead of 
being spent on the contents of the text. In place of studying 
the book, which is simply a treatise on the subject, the pupils 
study the subject, using books as helps. They are thus led 
into the habit of consulting different authors. They learn to 
gather information from various sourjces, and putting this 
together, to form an opinion which is somewhat their own. 
Under the influence of this method, pupils become more 
independent in thought and research, and as a result are led 
to take more interest in historical study. 

2. The Subjects of History should be studied in a Sys- 
tematic Order. 

In this way the pupils are better able to trace the relations 
of cause and effect, to see the philosophy of history. In this 
scientific method of study, in which the natural relations of 
different subjects are regarded, the knowledge acquired forms 
a basis for knowledge to be obtained. Not only so, but 
scientific study stimulates investigation by creating a desire 
to know, and facilitates the acquisition and retention of his- 
torical knowledge by pursuing it in a connected thread of 
natural inquiry and classifying it in its relations to fixed 

3. The Instruction should be Thorough and Life-like. 

The lack of interest in historical studies (especially on the 
part of children) may be traced in large measure to two 
causes: (a) A lack of thoroughness; (-6) The instruction 
is not life-like. The term thorough as here used does not 
mean simpl}^ a good knowledge of the text, but a knowledge 
of the subject in its details. There are many that can readily 


recite the lines of the text who have but little idea of the 
subject. The number and nature of the subjects studied 
must be determined by the capacity of the pupil and the 
time allotted to the study. In this way proper instruction 
may secure a reasonable thoroughness. 

Guizot, in speaking of the historian Prescott, says : "His 
pictures are never wanting in truth, but they are sometimes 
wanting in life." Referring to his History of Philip II, the 
same author says of him: "Faithfully, therefore, as these, 
events and these personages are described by him, he leaves 
them where he finds them — in their tombs." 

So may it be said of much of our historical teaching. It 
is not lacking in the element of truth, but in the life. A very 
good description is given of the personages and the events, 
yet to the child it is like a ramble through a graveyard. If 
De Soto, with his company and outfits, in his explorations 
could pass through one of our cities to-day, what child would 
not be on the street, and what front window would not be 
crowded with heads? Can we suppose that there were no 
boys and girls standing on the banks of the Hudson watch- 
ing the first steamboat as it moved up the stream on its way 
from New York to Albany ? There is nothing in which chil- 
dren take a greater interest than in the real appearances and 
doings of human beings. 

4. Historical Classifications and Essays are helpful 

exercises in tile study of hitotory. 

The classification of subjects is^ a natui'al accompani- 
ment of the topical method of iuslruction. In assigning 
subjects lor study it io quue natural for the teacher to resort 
to some plan of classification by which the students may be 
guided in their investigations. It then becomes natural for 
the pupils to fill out and complete these classifications as they 
proceed in the study of the subjects. The classifications may 
be made more or less complete by the teacher in accordance 
with the capacity and knowledge of the pupils. At first it 


may be required of the pupils only to fill out the subject- 
matter of the classification by adding uuder their proper 
headings such dates, events, leading characters, etc, as may 
be gathered Irom the researches necessary in the preparation 
of the lesson. At length the teacher may only find it neces- 
sary to assign the subject to be classified, or at most the sub- 
ject heading with some general divisions, leaving the principal 
part of the classification to be made out by the pupils. These 
classifications may be discussed in the class or collected and 
examined by the teacher out of class. It is generally ad- 
visable to do both. In addition to classifications, let the 
work of the student be supplemented by a series of es- 
says written upon prominent historical subjects. The selec- 
tion of these subjcf.'ts must be left to the judgment of the 
teacher, who should be governed by the age and advancement 
of the pupil. The discipline received in preparing classifi- 
cations will aid the pupil in selecting and arranging material 
for essays. But what is to be gained by requiring students 
of history to prepare classifications and write essays upon 
historical subjects? In answer to this question it may be 
claimed : 

(a). By classifications the ideas are made clearer and 
more distinct in the pupil's mind. The student who forms 
the habit of systemizing his knowledge by collecting it under 
certain natural headings will, as a rule, have more reliable 
ideas than the one who pursues his studies without definite 
scheme. With the subject matter of the lessons divided, and 
the several parts arranged under their respective headings, 
the student can the more readily see the relations of events as 
causes and effects. By thus making knowledge more accurate 
and giving the pupil the advantage of the law of association, 
the parts of history are more easily remembered, and the 
study of it is made more scientific. 

(6). The influence of essay writing is to make knowledge 
more complete as well as more definite. 

This is especially true in historical study. Let the teacher 


assign a topic for an essay, making for the class the necessary 
analysis. The same rule will apply in preparing the analysis 
for an essay as that suggested in the matter of headings for 
classifications. The pupils in the selection of the material 
for the essay will make more extensive research than in the 
preparation of the ordinary lesson. They will also be more 
accurate in their statements, and exercise a better choice in 
the use of language. Thus their knowledge of the subject is 
made more extensive and more reliable. The topics for 
historical essays should be selected in most part from those 
subjects which have a marked importance in the chain of 

In this way the more important subjects will receive 
the more extensive research. By assigning these central 
subjects as topics for essays, the investigations required to 
obtain material for the essays will assist the pupils in the 
preparation of their daily lessons, while the daily lessons will 
in turn furnish items and suggestions for the essays. 

These essays should be corrected by the teacher and 
then read in the class by the pupils. When pupils are suf- 
ficiently advanced it is often advisable to have the essays 
exchanged and criticised by the different members of the 
class before the examination by the teacher. 

(c). The preparation of classifications and essays provides 
a definite work to be done by the pupils out of class. 

The order and discipline of the student, together with his 
interest and advancement in study, depend quite as much 
upon the arrangement of work to be done out of class as 
upon the instruction given in the recitation. 

This work to be done out of class is sufficiently arranged 
for when the pupils have something definite to do that they 
can do and that will occupy their time. 

Too little attention is generally given to the assignment of 
the lesson. The too common hasty statement at close of 
recitation — "Take the next lesson," "Take Ihe next four 
pages," etc., does not properly arrange for work to be done 


by the pupils. Not only should due attention be given to 
the assignment of work, but there should be a provision by 
which the work may be reported in definite form and exam- 
ined by the teacher. 

In the study of history this provision can be amply secured 
by exercising the pupils in the preparation of classifications 
and essays. 

Assignment of First Lesson. — L. S. History.^ 

We are to study the History of the United States. What 
can be said of this country of ours, class? What is its stand- 
ing: — its influence among the n^itions ? 

" It is a great nation." 

In what ways is this country a great nation? who will tell 
us ? Hands up ! ■ James may tell us. 

" This is a great country because ii has an extensive ter- 
ritory and a large population." 

Yes; and in what other way is it a great country ? Mary 
please tell us. 

" It has a rich soil and a good climate." 

Very good. What else, Frank? 

" The United States has a good government." 

Correct. No nation has a better government than the 

* It is presumed tliat tlie pupils have studied a course of topical lessons in Gen- 
eral History and that they are now prepared to persue the subject of United 
States History by a more systematic and philosophical method. They are now 
ready to give more attention to the relatw^is ot events as causes and ejfects,_ and 
to thf spiritual and physical agencies that operate in the development of a civili- 
zation and determine the nature of its government and institutions. 

The philosophical method of historical study is the natural method The skill 
and ingenuity of the teacher will give inspiration to the class and direct it in its 
proper lines of research. 

Next to a good library the means and opportunities at the hands of the teacher 
are the analysis of the subject, the assignment ot the lesson and the discussion of 
the subject-matter in the recitation. Of these tlie assignment of the lesson 
must not be deemed of secondary importance. Each teacher should be an em- 
bodiment of his own method. The model here given can be only suggestive The 
end to be sought is, 1st that the pupils shall become interested in the subject of 
the lesson and have a desire to know more about it 2d. That they have a deflnite 
idea of what they are to do in the preparation of the lesson, and 3d. that they have 
sufficient understanding as to the sources of information, 


United States. Who will tell us something else that makes the 
United States a great nation ? What does Anna say? 

" It is a great nation because it has a good class of people 
in it." 

That is correct. No country has a better class of people in 
it than the United States. No people have a higher standard 
of civilization than ours. 

Is this an old or a new country, class ? 

" It is a new country." 

Correct. Our government is only about one hundred years 
old. It is the youngest of the principal nations of the earth ; 
yet in all best things it is equal to the greatest of them. Why 
is this the case? Is it because our country has a superior ter- 
ritory or the more favorable situation, or is it because it has 
been more fortunate in the circumstances of its settlement 
and growth ? We shall not hope to answer these questions at 
this time, but must look to the history of the country for the 
story of its development and the causes of its greatness. To 
learn this story, then, and to find answers to these and other 
like questions is the purpose for which this class has been 

You say the United States is a great nation because it has a 
large and rich territory. How many of the class think that 
the territory and climate of a country have an influence upon 
the institutions and industries of the people who live in it? 
Hands up ! 

You who have your hands up are right. On our broad 
prairies the country is level, the soil rich and the climate 
mostly temperate ; what may we expect to find as the chief 
industries of the people who live there? 

" Farming and raising stock. '^ 

Very well. In the New England States the land is hilly 
and rough, the soil poor, and the creeks and rivers run rapidly 
over their rocky beds. What may we expect to find the 
people doing in New England, Henry ? 

" Manufacturing." 


Very good. What else, Waldo ? 

" They will be farmmg too." 

Very well. What does Lucy say ? 

'' Some will be fishing also." 

Why may we expect to find fishing ? 

" Because there are many good fish in some of the waters 
belonging to the New England States." 

In Mexico and South America the climate is warm and the 
people do not have to work very hard to get food, and do not 
require much clothing or very substantial houses to keep them 
comfortable. What kind of people shall we find in Mexico 
or South America ? 

" Indolent people." \ ' 

Very well. 

" Lazy people." 

Yes, that is much the same as indolent. 

"Black people." 

Why dark colored people, Lizzie ? 

" Because a warm climate makes the skin dark." 

What do you say now, class; do the natural conditions of a 
country have anything to do with the industries and charac- 
teristics of the people ? 

"They do." 

Then we will take for our first lesson something of the Phys- 
ical Geography of the United States. 

Where is the United States situated, class? 

" It is situated in North America." 

Can we understand the physical features of the United States 
without some knowledge of North America? 

''We cannot." 

We will then have our lesson extend over North America, 
and I will write on the black-board, as the subject of our first 
lesson : North America. What do we wish to learn of North 
America, class? Do the shape and position of a country bear 
any relation to the character and history of its people ? 

"They do." 


Then as the first topic to be considered under the subject ol 
North America, I will write : Shape and position. After shape 
and position, what shall we next write as a topic for study ? 

" Its surface." " The coast-line." 

What does the coas-tline have to do with the history of a 
country, Alice? 

" By a knowledge of the coast-line we can tell where the best 
harbors are, and good harbors have towns located on them." 

Yes, and in the settlement of a country the first colonies 
are generally founded in the vicinity of good harbors. For a 
second topic I will write : Physical features, as a more general 
topic, and under the head of physical features I will write : 1. 
Coast-line ; 2. Surface, with its sub-divisions of mountains, low- 
lands, &c.; 3. Waters, and 4. Climate. 

What shall be another general topic, Lucy? 

" What the country produces." 

Very good. As a third topic we will write : Products and 
natural resources, and fourth^ as closely related to the third 
topic, we will study the leading industries of the coun- 
try. As a fifth topic under the subject North America, we 
will write : Political divisions. I shall want you to tell us : 
1. What is meant by a political division and wherein it differs 
from a natural division ; 2. Give the names of the principal 
political divisions and tell their relative positions; and 3. Give 
some of the causes that lead to the political divisions of a 
country. As a sixth and last topic in the lesson, I will ask you 
to name the four largest cities in the United States, and give : 
1. The location of these different cities, and 2. Some of the 
influences or causes that determined their location and favored 
their growth. ^ ^^ ^ ^ 



f 1. Shape and position. 

2. Physical features. 

fl. Coast-line. 

il. Mountain systems. 
2. Plains. 
3. Lowlands. 

3. Waters. 

4. Climate. 

3. Products and natural resources. 

4. Leading industries. 

5. Political divisions. 



I 3. 

The four largest cities 
in the United States. 

Definition — How different from a na- 
tural division. 

Causes leading to. 

Name the different political divisions 
and give their relative positions. 

f 1 . Name and location. 

I 2. Causes that determined their loca- 

( tion and favored their growth. 

Gray. National Atlas, 11-13. 

Barnes. Complete Geography, 30-32. 

G.uyot. Physical Geography, 120-121. 

7. Eeferences. -{ Maury. Manual of Geography, 20-22. 

I American 'Cyclopaedia. 

I Maury. Physical Geography, 205-208. 

t Appleton's Physical Geography, 22-24. 

* The subject-matter as given in the different lessons may be varied and suited 
to the advanceement of the class and the sources of information to which the 
pupils have access. 

In some cases it may he found advisable to divide the topics of the analysis and 
provide for two lessons on the subject instead of one. In history as in other 
branches of study a common error is to assign too much for a lesson. 

Until the pupils become somewhat acquainted with the different books of refer- 
ence and learn how to use them the references should be made explicit by giving 
volume, page, &c. 

It is generally more satisfactory to begin with a few references. As the class 
advances the scope of reference should be widened and a more exhaustive research 
encouraged. In the following lessons the matter of the references has been left 
mainly with the teacher who can judge best of the capacity of the class and the 
opportunities for research. 








1. Shape and position. 

f ri. Mountains. 

1. Surface. \ 2. Plains. 
J is. Lowlands, 

2. Physical features. \ 2. Coast-lines and harbors. 

3. Waters. { \ ^^^H ^^^ "^^^" 'y^^^^^^' 
^4. Climate. 
Political divisions. 
Products, natural resources, &c. 

6. Inhabitants, 

I 2. 



Classes or nationalities. 

Marks of distinction between the different 

Whv so many different nationalities in the 

United States? 

7. Kind of Government. 

f Barnes's Complete Geography. 33-36. 
I Maury's Physical Geography, 121, 124, 125. 
I Steimvehr & Brinton. Intermediate Geography, 
I 21-23. 

8. References. \ The Peerless Atlas of the World, 70-72. 

I Johnson's New Family Atlas, 40 — 

I Gray's National Attas, 15 — 

I Lippincott's Pronouncing Gazetteer of the 

[ World. 


LESSON iir. 

' 1. Why called Indians. 

2. Their leading characteristics. 

3. Their industries, occupations, &c. 

4. Their religion, system of worship, &c. 

5. Their education, language and literature. 

6. Their systems of government. 

fl. The home. 

^ ^^ , I 2. The position and influence of woman. 

7. Manners and o t\t • j • i j.- 

customs ' '^' ^-'^^rriage and marriage relations. 

I 4. Funerals, &c. 

[ 5. Amusements — games, &c. 

8. Their origin and history. 

9. Their relations to the United States government. 

' Bancroft. History of the U. S., Vol. I, 80- 
Taylor. Mo lei School History, 19— 
Ridpath. History>f U. S., 11-14. 
Quackenbos. History of U. S., 31-42. 

10. References.-! Lossing. Outline History ofU. S., 15-18. 
Scott. School History of U. S., 8-13. 
Edward Eggleston. History of United States and 

its people, 71-78. ^W -^^"^^Z 

McMaster. A History of the people of^ the 
United States, Vol. I, 5-8— 








W 4. 

O 5. 

^ 6 


The time in which he lived 
Hia ancestry. ^ ^ 


The condi- 
tion of the 
world dur- 
ing his time 

5. The state of indi- 

vidual liberty. 

6. The state 


of (?• 


1. The partl^nown to civilization. 

2. The leading nations. 
8. The kinds of government. 

(a. Intelligence of the 
4. The condition of the , ^- The nature of their 
Christian Church. ^ ^^ /f.^^'^ings, 

c. Relations of the 
church to the 
[ ^ state. 
General education. 
Notions of the earth's 
shape, motions, <%c. 
7. Occupations of the people. 

His education and early associations. 
His religion, notions of astronomy, &c. 
His struggles against opposition. 
His voyages - especially the first. 
His leading motives and characteristics. 

Prescott. Ferdinand and Isabella, Vol. II, 114- 

166,460; Vol. Ill, 253. 
Lossing. Cyclopedia of United States History. 
Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, Vol. II, 7-13. 
Myers. Mediaeval and Modern History, 320- 

321, 351-352. 
C. Geikie. The English Reformation, 66. 
Fainter. A History of Education, 93-118. 
D^Aubigne. History of the Reformation, Vol. 

I, 50-68. 
Abbott. The Romance of Spanish History, 190 « 

202, 253-271. 

9. References. - 

* In the department of United States History the series of essays is de- 
signed to serve a two-fold purpose : First, to bring before the class the most im- 
portant parts of collateral history, and second to secure a more extensive and 
thorough study of the central subjects of United States History than is likely to 
be obtained through ordinary study and recitation. Therefore to omit or neglect 
the essays would be to leave out essentiallinks in the chain. 

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Topical Analysis. 


1. Iti^ relation to \ 

f 1. The characteristics of a people are influ- 
enced by the ])hy8ical features of the 

I country in which they live. 

! 2. The industries of a country are determin- 
ed by its natural resources. 
3. An acquaintance with the place makes 
the remembrance of an event more 

f 1. As a means of culture. 

Its value J o 
as a study j V 

I s! 


As a collateral aid in the study of other sub- 
As a source of valuable experience. 
As an influence upon the moral nature. 
As a basis of political and social prescience. 
As a means of broad culture. 

The topical method is the nat- 
ural method. 
It makes prominent the most 
important characters and 
events of history. 
It should J 3. It concentrates the investiga- 
be topical.' tions of the student upon 

these important subjects in- 
stead of upon the contents of 
the text. 
It encourages independent 
[ thought and research. 
The subjects should be studied in a system- 
atic order. 
Classes should be exercised in recitations, 
classifications and historical essays. 

ft. The principle of cause and effect should be 
I the basis of historical study. 

4. Remarks. \ 2. The student of history is brought into the 
I companionship of the good and great. 

[3. History is a reflection of human nature. 

Method of \ 
study. "] 

"Nothing in the past is dead to the man who would learji how th? 
present came to be what it is," 




Much has been written on the subject of Geography. Its 
importance as a means of primary culture has been well 
shown, and some good methods for teaching geography have 
been suggested and have been employed with excellent suc- 
cess, yet we often hear the subject of geography spoken of as 
a branch of study in which pupils are not likely to take a 
very lively interest. 

Now children are naturally interested in the study of 
such topics as sea-coasts and lakes, rivers and water-mills, 
steambOating and fishing,cities, their people and industries, the 
different countries and their .animals, the mountains and, 
their mining enterprises, broad plains with their farming and 
grazing interests, and other subjects properly coming under 
the study of geography. Hence by the skillful application of 
proper means and methods geography ought to be one of the 
most interesting branches connected with the work of culture, 
and there are but few studies that promise more to the earnest 

The study of geography broadens the intellectual vision, 
enlarges the moral sympathies, develops a tolerant spirit, 
cultivates a tendency to observe the relations of causes and 
effects, creates a thirst for knowledge— especiahy a knowledge 
of history and the natural sciences — gives an idea of the form 
and surface of the earth, with a knowledge of its climate, soil 
and chiel products, teaches of the different nations their 
political and commercial relations, their civilization and re- 
sources, cultivates the powers of careful observation, quick- 
ens the imagination and helps to form a basis for reliable 
memory. These, and more the study of Geography promises 
to the diligent pupils who are under the normal direction of 
a skillful teacher. Then what shall be the method for Geo- 


graphical study, or rather what are some of the leading 
principles to he regarded in order that the science of geogra- 
phy may be satisfactorily taught and that it may be to the 
students all that it promises to be. 

1. In the study of geograghy the pupils should be re- 
quired to proceed from the known to the unknown. They 
should commence b}^ studying the school grounds or some 
other convenient plot and thus study by observation before 
studying by map. By studying in this way the child ac- 
quires the habit ol viewing the surface of the country as an 
object with its rivers and creeks, valleys, hills and moyntains, 
trees, &c., instead of thinking of it as a map-picture with its 
black lines, brindled extensions and differently-colored spaces. 

Study is thus made natural and life-like instead of arti- 
ficial and mechanical — concrete instead of abstract. 

2. The method of study should be topical. One 
thing at a time and that well understood is at all times a key 
to successful study and is especidly such in the study oj 
geography. The indifference often seen among members o- 
the geography class, may be largely attributed to the hetero' 
geneity of the lessons assigned. 

In order to dispose of the multiplicity of the gross subject- 
matter contained in most of our text-books on geographyf 
provision is made for the study of a number of topics in a 
lesson and these often having but little natural relation — as 
for example the principal rivers or cities of a country or the 
number and names of the counties of a state. 

The topical method would take as a lesson a single town, a 
river or a county and study it thoroughly, obtaining informa- 
tion from all available resources. By this method the pupils 
aro led to study the subjects instead of books — to think 
about real objects instead of dots, lines and colored spaces 

3. The study ot geography should be systematic, tliat is 
to say, the topics should be taken up in their natural order, 
th'it one lesson or part of a lesson may be hooked on to other 
lessons or parts that have been studied. As an illustration — 


when the nature of a country is known we are better able to 
understand about its animals and resources and the cause 
leading to the location of the cities, &c., and when the loca- 
tion of a city has been discussed the pupils are better pre- 
pared to take up the subject of its industries. 

4. Those parts of geography should be studied which 
bear relation to the history and leading industries of the 
countries. Of the multiplicity of subjects coming under the 
head of geography the pupil can hope to acquire a knowledge 
of only a very small part. Historic places and locations in 
which important industries flourish are apt to be studied with 
a more lively interest, while at the same time they are the 
natural links in the chain of systematic geography. 

5. Map-drawing should accompany the study of geog- 

(a.) Map-drawing gives a more definite idea of the coun- 
try than can be obtained by the ordinary method of study 
and recitation ; (6) it developes the powers of the pupils, and 
(c) it furnishes work for pupils out of class. 

Different systems of map-drawing have been introduced 
and employed with satisfactory results. However good a 
system may be, it will often require to be modified and 
adjusted to the circumstances and immediate needs of the 
class. The work of map-making should proceed by a 
definite plan and in natural order. It should proceed with 
the study of the subjects, and the maps when made should 
suggest as much as practicable the physical features of the 

6. The study of- geography should be accompanied with 
instruction on the incidents of history. 

The Mississippi river becomes much more interesting as a 
subject of study for children when associated with the his- 
tory of its discovery by De Soto, its explorations by Mar- 
quette or its boating scenes of pioneer life. 

A lesson on the city of Philadelphia is at once more natural 
and life-like when studied as the early settlement of Penn 

and his followers, the scene of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, the home of Charles Thompson and the Continental 
Congress, and the birth-place of the Federal Constitution. 
As the dividing line between Maryland and Pennsylvania is 
more interesting and impressive when associated with the 
story of the Mason and Dixon line. The rule is that the 
geography of a country is more interesting when studied with 
its history. 

The following scheme may serve to suggest the matter and 
method for a course of topical lessons in the study of ge- 
ography : 

1. Geographical position, source, length, direction of its flow, 

2. Its size, nature of its bed, banks, waters, &c. 

3. Nature of the country through which it flows, natural pro- 
ducts of the country, &c. 

4. Principal cities located on its banks. 

5. Commercial advantages. 

6. Nature of the traffic on the river. 

7. Industries to be seen on passing down the river from Min- 
neapoUs to New Orleans. 

iyj ] 8. Historic incidents connected with its discovery and explora- 

f Lossing's Cyclopsedia of U. S. History. Vol. 

I 11. 899. 

I American Cyclopsedia. 
9 References \ Bancroft's History of U. S. Vol. 11. 329-333. 
J. ±teierences. i ^yrsike. The making of the Great West. Vol. 

I 1. 16-18, 85-89. 

I Barnes' Complete Geography, 31. 

[ Guyzot's Physical Geography, 53. 

f 1. Location. 

Circumstances and influences favoring the founding and 
growth of a city at this place. 

3. Chief advantages of the location. 

4. The leading industries. 

5. Size of city, population, &c. 

^ -{ 6. Diff"erent nationalities represented — why go many. 

7. Historic incidents connected with its founding and growth. 

8. Its rival cities in the United States, and why. 

f Lossing's Cyclopaedia of U. S. History. Vol. 11. 

9. References. ^ Eggleston. History of the U. S. and its peo- 

L pie, 45. 



Topical Analysis. 



1. Its relations to history and the natural sciences. 

1. It broadens the intellectual vision. 

2. It enlarges the moral sympathies. 

3. It tends to develop a tolerant spirit. 

4. It cultivates a tendency to observe the re- 
lations of causes and effects. 

5. It creates a thirst for knowledge— especially 
a knowledge for history and natural sci- 

Its value as J 6. It gives an idea of the form and surface of 
a study. ' the earth, with a knowledge of its climate, 

soil, animals, chief products, &c. 

7. It teaches of the different nations, their po- 
litical and commercial relations, their civ- 
ilization, resources, &c. 

8. It cultivates the powers of observation. 

9. It trains the imagination. 

10. It helps to form a basis for reliable mem- 
l ory. 

f 1. Proceed from the known to the unknown. 

2. Commence by studying the school grounds, or 
I some other convenient plot, and thus study 

by observation before studying by map. 
I 3. The method of study should be topical. 

4. The method of study should be systematic. 
I 5. Those parts of geography should be studied 
{ which bear relation to the history and lead- 

I ing industries of the country. 

I 6. Map-drawing and essay-writing should occom- 

pany the study of geography. 
I 7. The study of geography should be accompa- 
I nied with instruction on the incidents of 

I history. 

L 8. One thing at a time and that well. 
The geographical interest of a place increases as one be- 
comes acquainted with its history. 
There is a very close relation between the physical fe'Btures 

of a country and the industries of its people. 
The natural method requires that the teacher often lead 
the class on imaginary journeys along the lakes and 
rivers, through valleys, over mountains, or follow with 
the pupils the ships in their voyages across the ocean, 
and thus make the recitation as natural and life-like as 
The writing of short essays on geographical subjects from 
analyses given by the teacher proves an interesting and 
profitable exercise in connection with the study of 

Method of 


I I 



Science is defined as knowledge classified with respect to 

The natural sciences treat of the facts and phenomena of the 
material world and the laws and principles relating to them. 

Early in the childhood of the races, the stars were studied 
with great interest. Their relative sizes and positions were 
observed, their different movements and appearances were 
noted and studied, their causes enquired after, till at length 
discovery was made that a:ll siderial phenomena are related to 
certain natural influences and that all the heavenly bodies 
move in obedience to fixed laws, and the study of Astrology 
became the science of Astronomy. 

Early scholars gave attention to the study of the plants. 
They observed the facts and phenomena of their parts and 
growth and discovered the relation of plant phenomena to the 
laws of cell growth and the principles of vegetable life and 
Botany was added to the catalogue of science. 

Thus through 'the observation and study of the natural 
phenomena of the material world we have the sciences of 
Astronomy, Botany, Chemistr}^, Zoology, Geology, Natural 
Philosophy, &c. 

What is the place of these sciences in the work of gen- 
eral culture and by what method shall they be taught in or- 
der that the study of science may be interesting to children 
and at the same time have a proper influence in the normal 
development of their faculties and tendencies. 

In the study of the sciences three important ends are to 


be attained, mental discipline, moral and aesthetic culture, and 
an acquaintance with natural laws and their relations to 
natural phenomena. 

1. The discipline of the mental powers. Few sub- 
jects are more general in their influences of culture than the 
sciences, yet they are especially adapted to the training of 
the powers of observation, generalization, and inductive 

In scientific study almost every lesson is an object lesson 
and the attainments of the pupils depends upon the efficiency 
of perception. 

First by the careful observation of individual objects images 
are formed in the mind and retained by the memory. These 
images are compared, grouped and classified according to cer- 
tain distinctive marks ^^or definite principles. Thus the pupils 
receive a continuous and practical drill in mental training. 

2. The study of the natural science has a healthful influ- 
ence upon the moral and aesthetic nature of the student. 
Through the stady of natural phenomena and the laws and 
principles by which all matter exists, all growth is supported 
and all development is directed and shaped according to fixed 
patterns, the student acquires habits of careful discrimination, 
a respect for law, a love of harmony and an appreciation of 
the true and beautiful. 

What are some of the principles that shall guide us 
in the study of the natural sciences? What shall be the 
method of teaching and what the means employed? 

1. In the study of the sciences the order of proceedure 
should be from the individual to the class and from the 
known to the unknown. If the subject of study be Zoology 
commence with som^ animal with which the pupils are 
familiar. First study this ; observing and noting its promi- 
nent points, then study other animals that have like attrib- 
utes and thus lead the pupils on to the discovery of their class 
and its distinctive marks. 

If the subject be Botany or Geology begin with the single 


plant or rock or fossil and proceed to discover the properties 
or class. 

By thus beginning with the individual and studying by ob- 
servation before using the text-book the attention of the pu- 
pils is called to the real object and the study is made natural 
and life-like. By this method of study pupils are lead to 
form habits of careful observation and become more original 
in their methods of investigation. They are also more likely 
to acquire the habit of depending on themselves than when 
required to obtain information mostly from books. 

The Author is by no means disposed to overlook the idea 
that it is necessary for children to learn the use of books 
neither would he discourage the use of books altogether in 
the classes. Text-books may be made very useful even in 
primary instruction, when used simply as helps, but when 
they are given so prominent a place in the education of chil- 
dren that the chief task, in the preparation of the lesson con- 
sists in learning the language of the text they become obsta- 
cles in the way of natural research and barriers to original 

2. In the study of science the recitation should be con- 
ducted in a way to encourage originality of thought and stim- 
ulate a spirit of inquiry. 

Methods of study are largely determined by the methods 
of recitation. 

The following from Bert's Introductory Steps in Science 
contains practical suggestions on methods for teaching chil- 
dren : 

Come, John what is the difference between a fly and a 
horse? You laugh, but that's no answer; try to tell me. 

"A horse, sir, is a very large animal, and a fly is very 

Yes, but here is a picture in which the fly has been en- 
larged and the horse made very small. Of course you would 
never niistake one for the other, in spite of the size; but do 
you see nothing else ? 


''Oh, yes, sir ; a fly has wmgs, and a horse has none." 

Ah ! that is very well ; but suppose I were to pull off the 
fly's wings? There must be something else. What do you 
say Paul ? 

"A horse, sir, is covered with hair and a fly has no hair". 

Are you quite sure about that? Catch a fly, and let us look 
at it through my little magnifying-glass. See, it is all covered 
with hairs! They are very small, it is true, but they are 
there. James have you anything to say? 

"Sir, a horse has four legs, and a fly has six." 

Ah ! th.'it's a good observation, and we shall make use of it. 
But suppose we take two legs away from the fly, what then? 
Do you see no other diff'erence? No? And, yet, there are 
many, and great ones at that. 

Can we crush a fly. 

"Oh, yes, very easily, and nothing would be left but the 
outer parts — the skin, the legs, and wings." 

But, could we crush a horse? 

"I know very well that we have not enough strength in our- 
selves to do so." 

But, if a house were to fall on it, would it crush the horse 
and reduce it to a pulp, as would have been the case with the 


Why not? 

"Because the horse has inside its body hard parts — bones — 
that cannot be crushed, ivhile not even the smallest hones are to he 
found in the fly. The horse, then, is an animal that has 
bones, or, as is also said, that has a skeleton, as the whole 
bony frame is called; and the fly is an animal that has no 
bones." >!< >!<>!< >!< 

If the study be Natural Philosophy and it be persued by 
the experimental method (as it should be) the following reci- 
tation on the subject of the atmosphere may serve as an il- 

Class. — Can my right hand and my left hand be in the 
same place at the same time. 


''They cannot" 

Why not James. 

"The hands are matter and matter occupies space" 

Yes we learned in our last lesson that matter occupies 
space, and what else did we learn about matter Mary? 

"We also learned that matter has weight" 

That is correct. In endeavoring to find answer to our 
question in yesterday's lesson we learned that matter has 
weight and that it occupies space and we agreed to call every 
thing matter that occupies space and has weight. 

Our subject to-day is the atmosphere and the first question 
that presents itself for us to answer is, — How do we know 
that there is an atmosphere? 

John may answer. 

"When the wind blows we can feel the air" 

Very good. Who will name some other evidence of the 
existence of the atmos]3here; Hands up! I see a number of 
hands, Dora may tell us. 

"When you run fast the air pushes against you" 

Very well. You may also name an eveidence. 

"If you swing around you a board, flat side foremost, the 
air jDUshes against it." 

Correct. We see that there are many evidences that there 
is an atmosphere. The next question for us to answer is this. 
Is air matter? How many of the class are ready to say that 
air is matter? Hands up! I see that most of you have your 
hands up. What have we agreed to call matter, Henry? 

"Matter is anything that occupies space and has weight," 
Correct. In order to prove that air is matter we must show 
first that it occupies space and second that — 'it has weight.' " 

Class. I hold this jar so that 3^ou can all see it. What is 
in the jar. 

"It is air." 

Yes the jar is filled with air. We will put it, mouth down 
into this bason of water and what do you observe, Jane- 

"I see that the water does not rise up in the jar," 


And what does this prove class? 

"It proves that air occupies space." 

Now let us change the nature of the experiment. We 
will fill the jar with water and raise it up slowly out of the 
water with mouth down and what is to be observed, Henry? 

"The water in the jar rises above the surface of the water 
on the outside of the jar." 

Correct. Who can tell us the cause of this? Ellen may 
tell us. 

"It is caused by the air pressing down on the surface of the 
water on the outside of the jar" 

How many of the class think that the answer is correct? 
Hands up; I see that most of the hands are up. 

The answer is correct and what does this experiment prove 
class ? 

"It proves that air has weight." Very good. We have been 
able to show that air occupies space and that it has weight 
and so we conclude that air is matter. * * ^ ^i: 

By recitations somewhat after the foregoing methods 
much may be accomplished to awaken an interest in the sub- 
ject, arouse a spirit of origional enquiry and train the pupils 
in correct habits of study. 

3. Subjects of science should be studied in theirnatural 
and systematic order. In each branch of science the sub- 
ject-matter consists of certain divisions and parts connected 
together by ties of natural relationship. When the order of 
this relationship is observed the study and discussion of one 
subject, awakens an interest of enquiring in the subject that 
follows, and a knowledge of one topic aids in the investiga- 
tion and understanding of the next. 

4. Students in sciences should be encouraged to make 
collections of specimens. The interest which one takes in a 
subject depends very much on the amount of time and atten- 
tion given to it. In the departments of Botany, Zoology, 
Geology and Mineralogy there is generally a good supply of 
specimens within the reach of the class. 


The pupil who collects flowers and plants and bestows the 
time and labor necessary to classify and arrange them neatly 
and systematically in an herbarium is very apt to become in- 
terested in Botany. So in the collection and classification of 
animals, fossils and rocks or minerals, one is likely to become 
interested in the study of Zoology, Geology or Mineralogy. 

In addition to the advantiges to be derived in the way of 
an increased interest in the subject (which generally implies 
an increased knowledge) the selection and grouping of speci- 
mens give valuable returns in the training of the perceptive 
faculties, and in the formation of systematic habits. 

The gathering of specimens also furnishes work for the pu- 
pils out of class and helps to keep them profitably employed. 

5. Pupils should be required to express the results of their 
observations and study in classifications and essays. 

When science is studied by the natural method, preparing 
classifications is much the same as recording the results of re- 
search. By this systematic method of recording results the 
subject is brought definitely before the mind of the student, 
his ideas of the divisions and parts of the subject-matter are 
made clearer and their relations more distinct. 

Classifications also furnish a convenient means by which 
pupils may prepare their written work on the lessons. 

The writing of essays furnishes a profitable language ex- 
ercise for the pupils, while at the same time it does much to 
awaken an interest in subjects of science and broaden the 
scop«^ of research on the more central points of scientiiic 


Topical Analysis. 



fin observation. 
In generalization, , 
In inductive reasoning. 

f 1. By leading the mind into pure channels 
Moral dis- 1 of thought, 

cipline. ] 2. By awakening an appreciation of law as 
[ the basis of harmony. 

Jj]sthetic /By the observation and study of the beautiful 
culture. 1 in nature. 

An acquaintance with nat- f 1. As a source of pleasure, 
ural laws in their rela- J 2. As valuable in the appli- 
tions to natural phenom- \ cation of science to the 

ena. L arts. 

r 1. Proceed from the knowii to the unknown ; from the in- 
dividual to the class. 

Commence by studying objects and phenomena that are 
common, and thus study by observation before study- 
ing by use of the text. 

Study by subjects or natural objects, using books simply 
as helps. 

Recitation should be largely discursive— students observ- 
ing and expressing their ideas of observation. 

5. Subjects should be studied in a systematic order. 

6. Pupils should be encouraged to collect specimens. 

7. Pupils should express the results of their observations 
and research in written classifications or essays. 

1. "Read nature; nature is a friend to truth. Nature is 
Christian, preaches to mankind and bids dead matter 
aid us in our creed." 

"The beautiful is a manifestation of the secret laws of na- 
ture, which but for this appearance had been forever 
concealed from us." 

^ "Every truth is connected with every other truth in the 

\_*^ {_ universe of God." 




" Through nature up to natures God^ 



Or Attribules and Tendencies vjhich Teachers should ever strrte 
to Cultivate. 

1. A cheerful and hopeful disposition. 

2. A frank and trustful nature. 

3. Self-reliance and firmness. 

4. Agreeableness. 

5. Neatness. 

6. Dignity of bearing. 

7. Punctuality. 

8. A non-partisan spirit. 

9. Self-mastery. 

10. Sympathy. 

11. Originality. 

12. Naturalness. 

13. Selfless-ness. 

14. Kindness. 

15. Prevision. 

16. An appreciation of true character. 

17. An interest in children. 

18. Strong faith in the possibilities that lie hidden in the child. 

19. A love of the work. 

20. Consecration to the work. 

21. Broad and thorough scholarship — mastery of subjects to be 


22. Aptness to teach — teaching power. 

23. Faith in humanity. 

24. Faith in God. 




How to Teach — Hpnry Kiddle. Van AntAverp, Bragg & Co., N. York. 

Laurie's Primary Instruction. 

Quick's Educational Reformers. Robert Clark & Co., Cincinnati, O. 

The Cyclopaedia of Education. — Henry Kiddle and A. J. Schem. Stei- 
ger & Co., New York. 
[The Dictionary of Education laased on the alDove is a lower priced work.] 

Primary Object Lessons. — N. A. Calhns. Harper Bros., New York. 

Education. — Herbert Spencer. D. Appleton & Co., New York. 

Normal Methods of Teaching. — A. Holhrook. 

Lectures on Teaching. — /. G. Fitch. MacMillan & Co., New York. 

Methods of Teaching. — John Sweet. 

Methods of Teaching and Studying History. — Hall, Adams and other.o. 
Heath & Co., Boston. 

Froebel's Education of Man. A Lovell & Co., New York. 

Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching. A. S. Barnes & Co.,N. Y. 

Normal Method of Teaching. — Edward Brooks. Normal Publishing 
Company, Lancaster, Pa. 

The History of Pedagogy. — Gabriel .Compayre — (Payne's Translation.) 
D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, Mass. 

History of Education — Painter. D. Appleton & Cp. 

Teaching and Teachers. — H. C. Trumbull. John D. Wattles, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 


Outline Study of Man. — Mark Hopkins. Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y. 
The LaAV of Love, and Love as a Law. — 3Iark Hopkins. 
Mental Science and Methods of Mental Culture. — Edivard Brooks. 
Normal Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pa. 

*A tliorough study of a few choice hool^s on Pedagogics is to he preferred to 
an attempt to read largely, even of the works of standard writers on the f uhject. 

The most practical suggestions and the most lasting inspirations ai e obtained 
by saturating one's self with the thoughts and spirits of a few masters. 

It is with these thoughts in view that the ahove selection is made. 


Activity a law of childhood. 82 

Arrangement of school rooms 48, 50 

Assignment of Lessons 60, 65, 66, 122, 125 

Aim of all discipline 82 

Appearance 82 

Attention 44 

Anecdotes 25 

Awaken an interest 59 

Boarding place 48 

Bearing and personal appearance of teacher 32, 85 

Broad views 85 

Bodily strength 30 

Best order 82 

Bad acts repressed * 82 

Biography Ill 

Common sense of teacher 84 

Confidence in humanity 85 

Conscience 23 

Calisthenics 32 

Classifications 12 

Clean room 75 

Comfort of pupils.... 75 

Disobedient pupils 91 

Don'ts of school management ...87, 92, 98 

Dignity of labor 28 

Declamations 25 

Discipline 10, 30 

Discussion of lesson 60 

Disorder 68 

End of teaching 10 

Elementary sounds 99 

Expression of thought 101 

Essay writing 105, 119 

'Energy 31 

Exercise of moral faculties 36 


Elevate others 

Error > ••• 63 

Experience HO 

Faults of pupils 91, 92 

Foundation of unreliable scholarship 3 

Foresight. 47 

Frivolous things.. '. 43 

Gymnastics '. 32 

G-radin g work : 68 

Government of schools (see school government) 71 

Geography 132 

study of adapted to children 132 

What the study promises..... 132 

Methods of study, &c 133, 186 

The parts of Geography to be studied 134 

Should be accompanied with the study of history 134, 135 

Topical lessons 135 

Remarks on Geographical study 136 

Habits 35 

definition of 35 

Habits of obedience 36 

Habits of accurate observation 36 

Habits of industry. 37 

Habits of self-help 88 

Habits of bodily movement 88 

History 109 

definition of 109 

The value of Historical study 110, 112 

History as related to Geography 113 

The parts of History to be taught ....114 

Methods of teaching History 117 

Historical classifications and essay | 119, 120 

Assignment of lesson in History 122, 125 

Topical Analysis of lesson 126 

Chronological chart... 130 

Remarks on Historical study 131 

How to study..... 

How to keep pupils busy 

Intelligence of teacher 13 

Industry of teacher 13 

Inattention 63 

Kindness is power 82 


Language culture 95 

Literary taste 95^ 102 

Lounging 39 

Lazy 31 

Language study 100-108 

importance of 100, 101 

Langviage a medium and an instrument of thought 100 

Objects to be accomplished by language study 101, 102 

means and methods of 102, 103-4 

remarks on 108 

Moral Culture ., 22 

definition of. 22 

elements of .....22, 23 

means and methods of 24, 25, 26 

principles of 28 

Memory 42 

definition of 42 

principal elements of 42 

Means andmethods of memory culture 43, 44 

Statement of principles....... ., 45 

Movements of body 38 

Motives 23 

Moral instruction 24 

Moral sense 22 

Methods of teaching , 9 

Material for teachers 9 

Mental Development 14 

chief ends of 14, 15 

Nature of mind ., 16 

Natural Order of the minds development 16, 17 

means and methods of 18 

Principles stated 20 

Musts of school management 84-87, 93 

Normal Development of powers..... 13 

Noise of pupils — how to treat it 89 

Naturalness in teaching 11, 86 

Natural methods 117 

Observation — powers of 14, 21 

importance 15 

place of in the order of the mind's development 16 

means and methods of their culture 18 


Offences, 78 

kinds of 78, 79 

How treat the different offences.. 79, 81 

Opening school house and receiving pnpils 50 

Opinions of patrons 90 

Order of Development 16 

One difficulty .• 63 

Out of order 88 

Preparation of lessons, &c 49 

Patience 86 

Pranks of children — how to treat them, &c 89 

Penalties 80, 81 

kinds of, nature, &c 80 

when and where inflicted 80, 81 

principles stated 82, 83 

Preliminary work of teacher 47 

importance of 47 

kinds of 47, 49 

Boarding place 48 

Arrangement of school room ...48, 50 

Preparation of lesson 49 

Miscellaneous work to be considered 50 

Eemarks on preliminary work 52 

Programme 53 

importance and end of 53 

determined by the age and advancement of pupils 53 

determined by the nature of the subject studied 53 

should be made with regard to the size of the class 54 

More time given to work of forenoon 55 

Physical morality 32 

Preparation 49 

Physiology 32 

Principles stated 56 

Prevision 112 

Programme 57 

Power of thought 20 

Primary knowledge acquired 20 

Physical Culture 29 

interdependence between body and mind 

End of physical culture 30, 31 

means and method of 31, 32 

principles of 34 


Rules : 77 

Easier to make than to enforce 77 

When shall rules be introduced 77 

By whom should rules be adopted 78 

Recitation 58 

holds a chief place in school work 58 

chief ends of 58, 59 

How the ends of the recitations may be attained 59 

Work of the recitation 60 

Mode and process of recitations 61 

Suggestions on methods 62 

Remarks on the recitation 63 

Reading 94^99 

Importance of teaching reading 94 

Marks of a good reader 94, 95 

The work of the recitation 96 

Chief end of the reader 96 

Assigning of new lesson, &c 97 

Method of teaching reading 97 

Remarks 98 

Reviews 60 

Rewards 82 

School Government 70 

prevalent idea of 70 

School government both a science and an art 71 

Method of government must not be empirical 71 

End of school government 72 

Power of self-control essential 72 

Motive the end rather than the conduct 78 

Methods of government 73 

Governing principles or forces 74, 76 

Collateral aids to government 75, 81 

Statement of principles ,, 82, 83 

Spirit of work 64 

Spelling 96 

Self-control..... 72, 88 

Scolding 90 

Subject-matter for a lesson 65 

Successful teacher 13 

Stories 25 

" Symmetry 30 


Sciences 137 

definition of 137 

The place of the natural sciences in the work of culture 137 

Ends of scientific study 137 

Methods of study , 138 

Model recitations in science 139, 140 

Principles stated 144 

Self-help 38 

Technical Grammar 105, 106 

Teachers' work 10 

chief end of 10 

Training of powers 10 

Teaching 9, 10, 11 

a science 11 

prime end of. 10 

Method of , 11 

principles of 13 

Text Books 25 

Threats 87 

Trust pupils 88 

Unnatural discipline 20 

Words— meaning of,&c 94, 100 

Work of Pupils out of Class 64 

importance of 64 

should be definite, &c 65 

should be properly assigned 66 

The common error is to assign too much 6() 

One central subject at a time 67 

Examination and grading of work 67, 68 

How to grade the work of pupils 68 

Principles stated .'.... 69 

Work of another teacher — how to treat it 90 


om mm 5